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新课标2017高考英语语法填空解题指导及备考策略

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发表于 2016-8-10 10:10:06 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  新课标高考英语语法填空题设空设空大致有如下特点:
  无提示词一般考查:冠词、介词、连词、代词、助动词、固定搭配等
  有提示词一般考查:谓语动词、非谓语动词、形容词、副词、名词等。
  具体策略:
  (一)、给出动词基本形态,填写词性词形转化(转为名词、形容词),或填写谓语部分,或是填写非谓语动词;
  (二)、给出词语,词性的变化,如名词、动词、形容词、副词之间的转化,名词的复数形式,给出形容词,需要填写比较级、最高级,或词性词形转化,转化为副词,或是填写反义词(前缀);
  (三)、给出副词,填写比较级、最高级,或是填写反义词;
  (四)、不给词语填写限定词的时候,很可能是填冠词、人称代词主格宾格形式,物主代词、反身代词的单复数形式。形容词性物主代词或some、any、other、another等限定词;有的名词前有限定词,比如:序数词,形容词的最高级等,其前用定冠词。
  高考英语语法填空不给提示词范例:
  例:【2015课标II】The adobe dwellings built by the Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest are admired by even ______ most modern of architects and engineers.
  答案与分析:the。这里名词由形容词的最高级修饰,因此用定冠词。
  例:【2015广东】He owned ______ farm, which looked almost abandoned.
  答案与分析:a。名词farm前应该有冠词,因为在文章中第一次出现,所以用不定冠词。
  例:【2010广东】After the student left, the teacher let ______ student taste the water.
  答案与分析:another。上文谈到一个学生让老师品尝他从沙漠里带了来的泉水,当那个学生离开后,老师让另一个学生品尝这泉水的味道。根据语境这里填写限定词another。
  例:【2014广东】Last year, my brother and I went to Miami for a vacation. Some of my friends who had been there before said ______ was a wonderful holiday destination.
  答案与分析:it。第二个句子中的宾语从句缺主语,这里it代替前文提到过的Miami。
  例:【2015课标I】For those who fly to Guilin, it’s only an hour away ______ car and offers all the scenery of the better-known city.
  答案与分析:by
  例:【2014课标II】There were many people waiting at the bus stop, ______ some of them looked very anxious and disappointed.
  答案与分析:and。“There were many people waiting at the bus stop”是个完整的句子,“some of them looked very anxious and disappointed.”也是个完整的句子,两句之间是并列关系。
  例:【2012广东】______he thought he could escape attention by sitting at the back, he was
  wrong.
  答案与分析:Although/Though。这里有两个句子,“______ he thought he could escape attention by sitting at the back”和“he was wrong.”,且两个句子之间没有分号或句号,根据句意可知,第一个句子是让步状语从句。
  例:【2015课标II】As natural architects, the Pueblo Indians figured out exactly ______ thick the adobe walls needed to be to make the cycle work on most days.
  答案与分析:how。因为“...the Pueblo Indians figured out”和“...the adobe walls needed to be...”是两套主谓关系,即两个句子,它们之间没有句号或分号,空格处必定是填连词;根据句意,确定填写连词how。
  例:【2014广东】I didn’t understand ______ this would happen and my credit card had already been charged for the reservation.
  答案与分析:why
  例:【2015课标I】I’d skipped nearby Guilin, a dream place for tourists seeking the limestone mountain tops and dark waters of the Li River ______ are pictured by artists in so many Chinese paintings.
  答案与分析:that/which
  例:【2013广东】His son looked surprised, “I can understand why I shouldn’t pay too much, Father, but if I can pay less, _____not save a bit of money?”
  答案与分析:why
  例:【2014课标II】Then the driver stood up and asked, “ _______anyone lose a suitcase at the last stop? ”
  答案与分析:Did
  总之,以上讲解了语法填空题的部分微技能,例题都来自于高考真题,具有代表性。无论试题如何变化,万变不离其宗,只要牢固掌握英语的语法和词汇知识,就一定能做好语法填空题中的纯空格填空题。
  高考英语语法填空有提示词范例:
  例:【2015课标I】I’d skipped nearby Guilin, a dream place for tourists seeking the limestone mountain tops and dark waters of the Li River that are pictured by artists in so many Chinese ______ (painting).
  答案与分析:paintings。该词前面有限定词many,因此用复数形式。
  例:【2014课标I】While there are amazing stories of instant transformation, for most of us the ______ (change) are gradual and require a lot of effort and work, like cleaning up a polluted river. 答案与分析:changes。该词后面的动词是复数形式,因此change用复数形式。
  例:【2015课标I】Finally, that hard work paid off and now the water in the river is ______ (clean) than ever.
  答案与分析cleaner
  例:【2015课标II】In addition to their simple beauty, what makes the adobe dwellings admirable is their ______ (able) to “air condition” a house without using electric equipment.
  答案与分析ability
  例:【2015课标II】As ______ (nature) architects, the Pueblo Indians figured out exactly how thick the adobe walls needed to be to make the cycle work on most days.
  答案与分析natural
  例:【2015课标II】Walls made of adobe take in the heat from the sun on hot days and give out that heat ______ (slow) during cool nights, thus warming the house.
  答案与分析slowly
  例.【2014课标I】Just be ______ (patience).
  答案与分析patient
  例:【2015课标II】This cycle ______ (go) day after day: The walls warm up during the day and cool off during the night and are thus always a timely offset(抵消) for the outside temperatures.
  答案与分析:goes。根据句中的时间状语day after day和后面的句子中使用的时态,可以确定该动词用一般现在时态形式,主语是单数,因此动词用数三人称单数形式。
  例:【2015课标I】It was raining lightly when I ______ (arrive) in Yangshuo just before dawn.
  答案与分析:arrived。所给动词arrive前是代词I,这里应该是谓语动词,因为主句的时态是过去时态,因此这里用过去时态。
  例:【2015课标II】When a new day breaks, the walls have given up their heat and are now cold enough ______ (cool) the house during the hot day; at the same time, they warm up again for the night.
  答案与分析to cool
  例:【2015课标I】Abercrombie & Kent, a travel company in Hong Kong, says it regularly arranges quick getaways here for people ______ (live) in Shanghai and Hong Kong.
  答案与分析living
  例:【2015课标I】A study of travelers ______ (conduct) by the website TripAdvisor names Yangshuo as one of the top 10 destinations in the world.
  答案与分析conducted
  例:【2010广东】He spit it out, ______ (say) it was awful.
  答案与分析:saying。在这里say前没有并列连词,因此可以推断不是并列谓语,是非谓语动词,又因为say与主语he的关系是主动关系,因此用现在分词。

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发表于 2016-8-10 10:18:19 | 显示全部楼层

  参考练习
  一、考查词形转换
  1. He must be (mental) disabled.
  2. His teacher took a deep drink, smiled (warm), and thanked his student very much for the sweet water.
  3. We drank together and talked (merry) till far into the night.
  4. One Sunday morning in August I went to a local musical festival. I left it early because I had an appointment (late) that day.
  5. This proverb is saying we have to let things go in their (nature) course.
  6. But Jane knew from past experience that her (choose) of ties hardly ever pleased her father.
  7. Mary felt (please), because there were many empty seats in the room.
  8. “That would be a very (reason) thing to do in a big city, but it could destroy a small village like ours,” Nick said.
  9. “But such a small thing couldn’t (possible) destroy a village.”
  参考答案:1. mentally 2.warmly 3.merrily 4.later 5.natural
  6.choice7. pleased 8.reasonable 9.possibly
  二、考查非谓语动词
  1. He spit it out, (say) it was awful.
  2. I got on the bus and found a seat near the back, and then I noticed a man (sit) at the front.
  3. He suddenly appeared in class one day, (wear) sun glasses.
  4. “In the beginning, there was only a very small amount of unfairness in the world, but everyone added a little, always (think) that it was only small and not very important, and look where we have ended up today.”
  5. While she was getting me (settle) into a tiny but clean room, the head of the village was tying up his horse to my car to pull it to a small town some 20 kilometers away where there was a garage.
  6. For example, the proverb, “plucking up a crop (help) it grow”, is based on the following story.
  7. She wished that he was as easy (please) as her mother, who was always delighted with perfume.
  参考答案 1-7: saying sitting wearing thinking settled to help to please
  三、考查谓语动词时态及语态
  1. The sun was setting when my car (break) down near a remote and poor village.
  2. Besides, shopping at this time of the year was not a pleasant experience: people stepped on your feet or (push) you with their elbows (肘部), hurrying ahead to get to a bargain.
  3. He walked in as if he (buy) the school.
  4. Her mother was excited. “Your father has at last decided to stop smoking,” Jane____ (inform).
  5. Suddenly, he (find) that he had run out of salt.
  参考答案 1-5 :broken pushed had bought was informed found
  四、考查形容词或副词的比较级
  1. The teacher replied, “You tasted the water. I tasted the gift. The water was simply the container for an act of kindness and love. Nothing could be (sweet).”
  2. He was very tired after doing this for a whole day, but he felt very happy since the crop did “grow” (high).
  3. It might have made it a little (hard) for everybody because it meant they had to turn around, but that didn’t stop the kids in the class.
  参考答案 1-3 :sweeter higher harder

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发表于 2016-8-10 10:39:40 | 显示全部楼层

  2016年高考英语新课标I 语法填空真题
  阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。
  Chengdu has dozens of new millionaires, Asia’s biggest building, and fancy new hotels. But for tourists like me, pandas are its top____61_(attract).
  So it was a great honour to be invited backstage at the not-for-profit Panda Base, where ticket money helps pay for research, I_____62_(arrow)to get up close to these cute animals at the 600-acre centre. From tomorrow, I will be theirUKambassador. The title will be __63___(official) given to me at a ceremony in London. But my connection with pandas goes back ____64__ my days on a TV show in the mid-1980s, ____65_ I was the first Western TV reporter__66___ (permit) to film a special unit caring for pandas rescued from starvation in the wild. My ambassadorial duties will include ____67_(introduce) British visitors to the 120-plus pandas at Chengdu and others at a research in the misty mountains of Bifengxia.
  On mu recent visit, I help a lively three-month-old twin that had been rejected by _____68_ (it) mother. The nursery team switches him every few __69__( day) with his sister so that while one is being bottle-fed, __70____ other is with mum-she never suspects.
  参考答案
  61. attraction 62. was allowed 63. officially 64. to 65. when
  66. permitted 67. introducing 68. their 69. days 70. the
  2016年高考英语新课标II卷语法填空
  阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。
  If you feel stressed by responsibilities at work, you should take a step back and identify (识别)those of 41 (great)and less importance. Then, handle the most important tasks first so you’ll feel a real sense of 42 (achieve). Leaving the less important things until tomorrow 43 (be) often acceptable.
  Most of us are more focused 44 our tasks in the morning than we are later in the day. So, get an early start and try to be as productive 45 possible before lunch. This will give you the confidence you need to get you through the afternoon and go home feeling accomplished.
  Recent 46 (study) show that we are far more productive at work if we take short breaks47 (regular). Give your body and brain a rest by stepping outside for48 while, exercising, or dong something you enjoy.
  If you find something you love doing outside of the office, you’ll be less likely 49 (bring) your work home. It could be anything-gardening, cooking, music, sports—but whatever it is, 50 (make) sure it’s a relief from daily stress rather than another thing to worry about.
  参考答案
  41. greater 42. achievement 43. is 44. on 45. as
  46. studies 47. regularly 48. a 49. to bring 50. make
  2016年普通高等学校全国统一考试(新课标全国卷III)
  阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。
  In much of Asia, especially the so-called “rice bowl” cultures ofChina,Japan,Korea, 41 Vietnam, food is usually eaten with chopsticks.
  Chopsticks are usually two long, thin pieces of wood or bamboo. They can also be made of plastic, animal bone or metal. Sometimes chopsticks are quite artistic. Truly elegant chopsticks might 42 (make)of gold and silver with Chinese characters. Skilled workers also combine various hardwoods and metal 43 (create)special designs.
  The Chinese have used chopsticks for five thousand years. People probably cooked their food in large pots,44 (use) twigs(树枝) to remove it. Over time,45 the population grew, people began cutting food into small pieces so it would cook more quickly. Food in small pieces could be eaten easily with twigs which 46 (gradual)turned into chopsticks.
  Some people think that the great Chinese scholar Confucius,47 lived from roughly 551 to 479 B.C., influenced the48 (develop) of chopsticks. Confucius believed knives would remind people of killings and 49(be) too violent for use at the table.
  Chopsticks are not used everywhere in Asia. InIndia, for example, most people traditionally eat 50 their hands.
  参考答案
  41. and 42. be made 43. to create 44. using 45. as
  46. gradually 47. who 48. development 49. were 50. With
  2015年新课标I卷语法填空真题
  阅读下面材料, 用不多于1个单词的正确形式填空。
  Yangshuo,China
  It was raining lightly when I 61.__________(arrive) in Yangshuo just before dawn. But I didn’t care. A few hours 62.__________, I’d been at home in Hong Kong, with 63.__________(it) choking smog. Here, the air was clean and fresh, even with the rain.
  I’d skipped nearby Guilin, a dream place for tourists seeking the limestone mountain tops and dark waters of the Li River 64.__________ are pictured by artists in so many Chinese 65.__________(painting). Instead, I ‘d head straight for Yangshuo. For those who fly to Guilin, it’s only an hour away 66.__________ car and offers all the scenery of the better-known city.
  Yangshuo 67.__________(be) really beautiful. A study of travelers 68.__________(conduct) by the website TripAdvisor names Yangshuo as one of the top 10 destinations in the world. And the town is fast becoming a popular weekend destination for people in Asia. Abercrombie & Kent, a travel company in Hong Kong, says it 69.__________(regular) arranges quick getaways here for people 70.__________(live) in Shanghai and Hong Kong.
  参考答案
  61. arrived 62. before/earlier 63. its 64. that/which 65. paintings
  66. by 67. is 68. conducted 69. regularly 70. living
  2015年新课标II卷语法填空真题2015全国二卷
  阅读下面材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(1个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。
  The adobe dwellings(土坯房)__61__(build) by the Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest are admired by even __62__ most modern of architects and engineers. In addition to their simple beauty, what makes the adobe dwellings admirable is their __63___(able) to “air condition” a house without __64__(use)electric equipment. Walls made of adobe take in the heat from the sun on hot days and give out that heat__65___(slow)during cool nights, thus warming the house. When a new day breaks, the walls have given up their heat and are now cold enough __66_(cool) the house during the hot day: _67__ the same time, they warm up again for the night. This cycle __68 __ (go) day after day: The walls warm up during the day and cool off during the night and thus always a timely offset(抵消)for the outside temperatures. As __69__ (nature) architects, the Pueblo Indians figured out exactly _70__ thick the adobe walls needed to be to make the cycle work on most days.
  参考答案
  61. built 参考解析:过去分词做定语
  62. the 参考解析:最高级前加the
  63. ability 参考解析:their后接名词,able名词形式ability.
  64. using 参考解析:介词后接动名词
  65. slowly 参考解析:副词修饰动词give out.
  66. to cool 参考解析:形容词加enough后接不定式。
  67. at 参考解析:at the same time
  68. goes 参考解析:根据上下文,此处用一般现在时态。
  69. natural 参考解析:形容词做定语修饰名词。
  70. how 参考解析:根据句意,应用how连接宾语从句。
  2014年新课标I卷(第二节)
  阅读下列材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(不多于3个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。
  Are you facing a situation that looks impossible to fix?
  In 1969, the pollution was terrible along the CuyahogaRiver near Cleveland, Ohio. It 61________ (be) unimaginable that it could ever be cleaned up. The river was so polluted that it 62__________ (actual) caught fire and burned. Now, years later, this river is one of 63__________ most outstanding examples of environmental cleanup.
  But the river wasn’t changed in a few days 64 __________ even a few months. It took years of work 65 __________ (reduce) the industrial pollution and clean the water. Finally, that hard work paid off and now the water in the river is 66 __________ (clean) than ever.
  Maybe you are facing an impossible situation. Maybe you have a habit 67 _____________ is driving your family crazy. Possibly you drink too much or don’t know how to control your credit card use. When you face such an impossible situation, don’t you want a quick fix and something to change immediately?
  While there are 68______________(amaze) stories of instant transformation, for most of us the 69______________(change) are gradual and require a lot of effort and work, like cleaning up a polluted river. Just be 70 ______________ (patience).
   参考答案
  was;actually;the;or;to reduce;cleaner
  that/ which;amazing;changes;patient.
  2014年新课标II卷语法填空真题
  阅读下列材料,在空白处填入适当的内容(不多于3个单词)或括号内单词的正确形式。
  One morning, I was waiting at the bus stop, worried about 61 _____________ (be) late for school. There were many people waiting at the bus stop, 62_______________some of them looked very anxious and 63_______________ (disappoint). When the bus finally came, we all hurried on board. I got a place next 64_______________the window, so I had a good view of the sidewalk. A boy on a bike 65_____________(catch) my attention. He was riding beside the bus and waving his arms. I heard a passenger behind me shouting to the driver, but he refused 66________________ (stop) until we reached the next stop. Still, the boy kept 67______________(ride). He was carrying something over his shoulder and shouting. Finally, when we came to the next stop, the boy ran up to the door of the bus. I heard an excited conversation. Then the driver stoop up and asked, “ 68________________anyone lose a suitcase at the last stop?” A woman on the bus shouted, “Oh dear!It is 69________________(I)”. She pushed her way to the driver and to the little boy. Everyone on the bus began talking about what the boy had done. And the passengers 70 _____________(sudden)became friendly to one another.
  参考答案
  being; and; disappointed; to; caught; to stop; riding; Did; me /mine; suddenly.
  对话题(2014年新课标全国卷《考试说明》样题)
  Mum: (putting on her coat) I'm going to have to go down to the shop for more bread.
  Alan: Why?
  Mum: I'm not sure what 1 (happen). I made some sandwiches earlier and left them on the table 2 I went to answer the phone. But someone must have taken them because they're 3 (go).
  Alan: Oh, it must have been Dad. I'm sure he was in the kitchen 4 (early).
  Mum: No, he went off to his tennis match before I finished 5 (make) them, so he couldn't have done it. 6 , he couldn't carry a plate of sandwiches as well as all his tennis stuff, so I'm sure 7 wasn't him.
  Alan: (opening the fridge door) Well, it wasn't me. But Mum, look! Are these your sandwiches here on the bottom shelf of 8 fridge?
  Mum: Are they there? Oh, my goodness. I 9 have put them in there when the phone rang. Oh, dear. I really must be losing my 10 . Now, why did I put on my coat?
  答案与解析
  这是一篇对话。妈妈健忘,她接电话回来时,认为面包被人拿走了,故穿上大衣要去买面包。结果阿兰发现她把面包放进了冰箱里。妈妈在知道面包在冰箱时,竟然又忘了自己为什么要穿上大衣……。
  1. happened考查动词时态。根据语境分析,该句句意:我不确定出什么事了。happen是指过去的动作,故用过去时态。
  2. when考查连词。根据语境分析,该句句意为:我早就做好了些三明治,把它们放在桌子上,此时就去接电话了。when在此处为并列连词,意为“这时;此时”。while当……时,从句谓语动词多为延续性,且在句中不能修饰句子谓语动词made…and left…,故不用while引导时间状语从句。
  3. gone考查分词形容词。由上文的But someone must have taken them 即可分析,后面解释的原因该是:因为面包不见了。而动词go的过去分词形式gone恰好可认为是形容词,含有“离去的;不见的;过去的”之意。故填入gone。
  4. earlier 考查形容词。由上文的Oh, it must have been Dad.分析,I'm sure he was in the kitchen是在“之前”。故该填入形容词early的比较级earlier,表示“之前,早些时候”,符合语境。
  5. making考查非谓语动词。由句式结构和遣词造句分析,finish后需接动名词作宾语。故填入动词make的动名词形式。
  6. Anyway/Besides考查副词。句意:无论如何,他也不可能除了带上网球用品外,再带上一盘子三明治,因此我敢肯定不是他。根据语境可知anyway符合句意,而副词besides含有“此外”之意,也符合语境,但两个单词在书写时必须首字母大写。
  7. it考查代词。由上文的Oh, it must have been Dad.的语境也可分析,此处该用人称代词it,即强调“心中所指”的人。
  8. the考查冠词。此处为特定的表达,即特指家里的冰箱,故用定冠词the。
  9. must考查情态动词。由上文的语境left them on the table也可分析,此处该是表示对过去的肯定推测,故用must have done,即表示“对过去事情的肯定推测”。此句句意:电话响的时候,我一定是把它们放在那里了。故填入情态动词must。
  10. mind/memory根据语境可知,妈妈什么都不记得了,故认为自己失去了“记忆”。
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