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2018高考备考资料:英语倒装句常见结构及用法

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发表于 2018-2-19 17:10:48 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  完全倒装结构及用法
  一、具有“地点”意义的副词、时间意义的副词,以及能表移动方向的副词放在句首,句子的主语是名词,谓语是连系动词或表示“位置移动”的单个不及物动词时,该动词放在主语前面。如:There goes the bell.
  注意:当主语是人称代词时,尽管副词在句首,主谓不倒装。如:Out they rushed.
  二、具有“方位”意义的介词短语或副词短语在句中作状语或表语放在句首,谓语是连系动词be,以及表示“位于、存在”或“位置移动”的单个不及物动词时,该动词放在主语前面。如:Among the hens is a big cock.
  三、作表语的形容词或分词放在句首时,连系动词放在主语前面[英语语法]。如:Present at the party were the ladies in the big city.
  四、全部倒装是只将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。全部倒装常见结构有:
  1) here, there, now, then, thus等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用be, come, go, lie, run。
  There goes the bell.
  Then came the chairman.
  Here is your letter.
  2) 表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词。
  Out rushed a missile from under the bomber.
  Ahead sat an old woman.
  注意:上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词,如果主语是人称代词则不能完全倒装。
  Here he comes. Away they went.
  部分倒装结构及用法
  把谓语的助动词、情态动词放在主语前面为部分倒装。在下列情形中出现部分倒装。
  一、把“so ... that ...”句型中的“so + 形容词 / 副词”部分放在句首时,be动词或助动词放在主语前面。如:
  So frightened was the girl that she daren't move an inch further.
  二、用so,neither或nor构成的特殊句型,表示另一人或物也具有和前面提到的同样情况时,出现部分倒装。如:
  Jim asked the question. So did Lily.
  三、把具有“否定”意义的词语放在句首时,出现部分倒装。如:
  Never shall I forget your advice.
  四、注意下面几种情形的倒装:
  1. “only + 状语从句”和“not until + 从句”位于句首时,在主句中进行倒装。如:
  Not until the child slept did the mother leave the room.
  2. “not only...but also...”连接两个分句,not only位于句首时,倒装在not only所在分句进行。如:
  Not only were the children moved but also the adults showed their pity.
  3. “no sooner...than...”句型中的no sooner位于句首时,倒装在no sooner 主句中进行;“hardly / scarcely...when...”句型中的hardly位于句首时,倒装在hardly / scarcely主句中进行。如:
  No sooner had I gone in the house than it began to rain.
  4. 当if引导从句表示虚拟语气时,if可省,再把从句中的were,had或should放在主语前面,形成部分倒装。如:
  Had we been present, such a thing would not have happened.
  5. 当as引导让步状语从句时,参照下面的形式进行特殊倒装。如:
  Proud as these women are, they still look very weak. (作表语的形容词提前)
  Student as he is, he often works in the factory. (作表语的名词提前,同时省去不定冠词a)
  Hard as she worked, she couldn't support her family. (修饰谓语动词的副词提前)
  Try as he would, he might fail again. (带助动词的谓语动词提前)
  五、部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态动词倒装至主语之前。没有助动词或情态动词,则需添加助动词do, does或did,并将其置于主语之前。
  1.句首为否定或半否定的词语,如no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time, in no way, not until…,not only…(but also), hardly/scarcely…(when), no sooner…( than) 等。
  Never have I seen such a performance.
  Nowhere will you find the answer to this question.
  Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room.
  Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender.
  Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her.
  No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her.
  2.so, either, nor作部分倒装
  Tom can speak French. So can Jack.
  If you won''t go, neither will I.
  3. only在句首要倒装的情况
  Only in this way, can you learn English well.
  Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting.
  Only when he is seriously ill, does he ever stay in bed.
  4. as, though引导的倒装句
  as / though引导的让步从句必须将表语或状语提前 (形容词, 副词, 分词, 实义动词提前)。
  Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily.
  Young boy as he is, he knows a lot about basketball teams.
  Hard as it was, they reached the peak of the mountain.
  5.其他部分倒装
  1)so… that 句型中的so 位于句首时,需倒装。
  So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch.
  2)在某些表示祝愿的句型中:
  May you all be happy.
  3)在虚拟语气条件句中从句谓语动词有were, had, should等词,可将if 省略,把 were, had, should 移到主语之前,采取部分倒装。
  Were I you, I would try it again.
  常见考法 :
      1. not until 引导时间状语(从句)时的倒装;
  2. 含so 的句子倒装与不倒装的区别;
  3. only引导状语或状语从句时的倒装;
  4. 虚拟条件句省略If时的倒装。
  误区提醒1) Not until the early years of the 19th century___ what heat is
  A. man did know B. man knew C. didn''t man know D. did man know
  解析:答案为D.否定词not在句首,要求用部分倒装的句子结构。
  2) Do you know Tom bought a new car?
  I don''t know, ___.
  A. nor don''t I care B. nor do I care
  C. I don''t care, neither D. I don''t care also
  解析:答案为B.句中的nor引出部分倒装结构,表示"也不"。由 so, neither, nor引导的倒装句,表示前一情况的重复出现。其中, so用于肯定句, 而 neither, nor 用在否定句中。
  3) --- You forgot your purse when you went out. --- Good heavens, ____ .
  A. so did I B. so I did C. I did so D. I so did
  解析:错选A。 本题空处不表跟前面情况一样,只是对上述情况的随声附和,所以不用倒装。正确答案B。
  4)Only when the war was over ____ to hometown.
  A. did the soldier return B. the soldier returned
  C. returned the soldier D. the soldier did return
  解析:only 引导状语或状语从句时主句要用部分倒装。此题为一般过去时,须在主语前加did, 故正确答案为A。
  5) ____ for the free tickets, I would not have gone to see films so often.
  A. If it is not B Were it not C. Had it not been D. If they were not
  解析:错选A。此题关键是前后时态要呼应。本题是一个虚拟条件句,根据主句的时态,应该是对过去情况的虚拟,所以往前推一个时态的话,应该是过去完成时。故正确答案为C。

                    
               
               
                    
                    
                    
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