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2007高考英语:弄清定状语 读懂长短句

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发表于 2016-6-27 12:22:30 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
句子是构成篇章的基本单位。要读懂一篇文章,首先要理解每个句子。同样,要写出一篇文章,首先要写好每个句子。一个句子最短的基本成分是“主+谓”,最长的基本成分是“主+谓+宾+补”。基本成分的修饰语为附属成分:定语―修饰限制名词或代词的单词?短语或从句;状语―修饰限制谓语?句子或句子里一部分的单词?短语或从句。
一、附属成分作定语
英语中的定语可分为限制性定语和非限制性定语。用来作定语的有:名词?数词?形容词?代词?副词?介词短语?非谓语动词和定语从句等等。
1. 限制性定语:单个词放在被修饰的词前面,短语和从句放在被修饰的词后面。
(1)名词?形容词?副词?数词?代词或介词短语等;
①She worked in a shoe factory.
②Please don’t be so cruel to a ten-year-old child like that.
副词作定语一般放在被修饰的词后面, 以表示位置的居多。如:
③Do you know the man over there?
④Poor Jack tottered toward a hospital nearby.
present, absent, a-开头的形容词和形容词短语作定语放在被修饰的词之后。可以理解成which /that / who +is(was) / are(were)引导的定语从句的省略。如:
⑤All the people present at the party were his supporters.
⑥I think he is the oldest man alive in the small town.
(1)非谓语动词(短语),一般可转换成限制性定语从句。
①Let’s find a restaurant to have lunch in.
句中黑体部分可改为:where/in which we can have lunch
②The repairs cost a lot, but it’s money well spent.
句中黑体部分可改为:that/which was well spent
【注】 -ing形式作定语时只能用一般式, 表示与谓语动词动作同时发生,不可使用其完成式。如:
③Suddenly, a tall man driving a golden carriage seized the girl and took her away, disappearing into the woods.
句中黑体部分可改为:who/that was driving a golden carriage
④The flowers smelling sweet in the botanic garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature.
句中黑体部分可改为:that/which smell sweet in the botanic garden
(3)限制性定语从句。
①We are living in an age when/in which many things are done on computer.
②Many people who had seen the film were afraid to go to the forest when they remembered the scenes in which people were eaten by the tiger.
2. 非限制性定语,一般放在后面,对中心词起修饰作用,而不对其进行限制。省略之后对句子意思的表达影响不大。
(1)名词?数词?形容词等短语,可理解为一个省略的非限制性定语从句。
①David, our English teacher, appreciated your idea much.
句中黑体部分可改为:who was our English teacher
②He was sent to France, a European country.
句中黑体部分可改为:which was a European country
(2)非谓语动词(短语),一般可转换成非限制性定语从句。如:
The manager, making it clear to us that he didn’t agree with us, left the meeting room.
句中黑体部分可改为: who made it clear to us that he didn’t agree with us
(3)非限制性定语从句,常可转换成分词或并列句。如:
①John said he’d been working in the office for an hour, which was true.
句中黑体部分可改为:and it was true
②The famous basketball star, who tried to make a comeback, attracted a lot of attention.
句中黑体部分可改为:trying to make a comeback
【注】 as引导的非限制性定语从句常可提前,但and引导的并列句应在前一个分句后。如:
As is often the case, we have worked out the production plan.
可改为:We have worked out the production plan and it is often the case.
二、附属成分作状语
状语是用来修饰限制谓语?整个句子或句子里的一部分。常用来作状语的有:形容词?副词?介词短语?非谓语动词和状语从句等等。状语和句子间的逻辑关系各有不同,可以分成不同的状语:原因状语、时间状语、条件状语、结果状语、让步状语、伴随状语、目的状语、结果状语等等。
(1)形容词?副词和介词短语等作状语。如:
①Thirsty, he went into a tea house. (thirsty 是形容词,可看成是分词短语being thirsty的省略,对主语he进行补充说明)
②She sat quietly in her seat.(quietly是副词,修饰动作sat)
【注】 形容词通常不作状语,偶尔有形容词作状语,通常表示原因、方式、伴随、时间、让步等。如:
③He came in, full of fear. (表伴随,相当于When he came in, he was full of fear.)
④Ripe, the fruit tastes better. (表时间,相当于When the fruit is ripe.)
⑤Right or wrong, I will stand on your side. (表让步,相当于Whether you are right or wrong.)
(2)非谓语动词(短语),可转换成状语从句。如:
①Lost in the mountains for a week, the two students were finally saved by the local police. =句中黑体部分可补充为:After they were lost in the mountains for a week.
②It was unbelievable that the fans waited outside the gym for three hours just to have a look at the sports stars.
句中黑体部分可改为:in order that they could have a look at the sports stars
(3)状语从句。
①The house could fall down soon if no one does some quick repair work. (表条件)
②Roses need special care so that they can live through winter. (表目的)
③Since /as the weather is so bad, we have to delay our journey.(表原因)
④He speaks English as though he were an Englishman. (表方式)
熟练掌握句子的附属成分,对准确理解句子意思大有裨益,对长句的理解很有好处。在阅读中,有利于将长句读短,去掉枝蔓,抓住核心,提高篇章的理解能力。了解句子的附属成分也有助于写作。正确使用好句子附属成分能将意思表达更加准确,叙述更加生动,丰富表达方式,增强文章感染力。
真题精练
1. (2006年上海)I made so many changes in my composition that only I could read it. To _____ else, it was hard to make out.
A. none B. everyone C. someone D. anyone
2. (2006年北京)There have been several new events _____ to the program for the 2008 Olympic Games.
A. add B. to add C. adding D. added
3. (2006年广东)No matter how frequently _____, the works of Beethoven still attract people all over the world.
A. performing B. performed
C. to be performed D. being performed
4. (2006年陕西)He hurried to the booking office only __ that all the tickets had been sold out.
A. to tell B. to be told C. telling D. told
5. (2006年天津)The Beatle, ___ many of you are old enough to remember, came from Liverpool.
A. what B. that C. how D. as
6. (2006年江西)The hurricane damaged many houses and business buildings; _____, it caused 20 deaths.
A. or else B. therefore
C. after all D. besides
7. (2006年湖南)I had just stepped out the bathroom and was busily drying myself with a towel _____ I heard the steps.
A. while B. when C. since D. after
8. (2006年浙江)I was given three books on cooking, the first _____ I really enjoyed.
A. of that B. of which C. that D. which
9. (2006年上海)―It’s a top secret.
―Yes, I see. I will keep the secret _____ you and me.
A. with B. around C. among D. between
10. (2006年江苏)My most famous relative of all, _____ who really left his mark on America, was Red Sussel, my great-grand father.
A. one B. the one C. he D. someone
(Keys: 1. D 2. D 3. B 4. B 5. D 6. D 7. B 8. B 9. D 10. C)
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