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高考英语有关非谓语动词的11个重要考点

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发表于 2016-6-27 12:22:35 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  一、考查不定式、现在分词与过去分词的基本区别
  从时间关系上看,不定式表未来,现在分词表进行,过去分词表完成,同时注意不定式和现在分词的完成式也表完成(尤其是表示有明显的先后关系的完成);从主动与被动来看,不定式和现在分词表主动,过去分词表被动,同时注意不定式和现在分词的被动式也表被动(不定式的被动式在表被动的同时还兼表未来,现在分词的被动式在表被动的同时还兼表进行)。如:
  1. I send you 100 dollars today,the rest ____ in a year. (2005湖南卷)
  A. follows B. followed
  C. to follow D. being followed
  分析:答案选C。动词不定式表示未来的动作。
  2. ____ from other continents for millions of years,Australia has many plants and animals not found in any other country in the world. (2005湖北卷)
  A. Being separated
  B. Having separated
  C. Having been separated
  D. To be separated
  分析:答案选 C。因为 Australia 与 separate 是被动关系,且 separate 发生在谓语动词has之前,所以用现在分词的完成被动式作原因状语。
  二、考查非谓语动词的主动式与被动式
  结合句子意思,考查非谓语动词与相应逻辑主语的关系,若为主动关系,用主动式;若为被动关系,用被动式。此时要特别注意,过去分词没有相应的被动式,因为它本身可以表示被动。如:
  1. The repairs cost a lot,but it’s money well ___. (2005湖北卷)
  A. to spend B. spent
  C. being spent D. spending
  分析:答案选 B。因 money 与 spend 是被动关系,所以用过去分词。
  2. The prize of the game show is $30,000 and an all expenses ____ vacation to China.(2005北京卷)
  A. paying B. paid C. to be paid D. being paid
  分析:答案选 B。因 all expenses 与 pay 是被动关系,故用过去分词。注意句中的 an 不是修饰 expenses,而是修饰 vacation。
  3. When ____ help,one often says,“Thank you.” Or “It’s kind of you.” (2005福建卷)
  A. offering B. to offer C. to be offered D. offered
  分析:答案选D。因一个人说“谢谢”,应当是他“被”提供了帮助,所以要用过去分词,When offered help... 可视为When he is offered help...之省略。
  三、考查非谓语动词完成式的用法
  非谓语动词(不定式、动名词和现在分词)的完成式主要表示发生在谓语动作之前的动作。做题时要注意根据题干所提供的语境来推断这种先后关系。如:
  1. The storm left,____ a lot of damage to this area. (2005全国卷Ⅰ)
  A. caused B. to have caused
  C. to cause D. having caused
  分析:答案选 D。因 The storm 与 cause 是主动关系,排除选项A;不定式作状语,前面通常不用逗号,排除 B 和 C;因暴风雨给这个地区“造成损失”是在“结束”之前,所以用完成式。
  2. More and more people are signing up for Yoga classes nowadays,____advantage of the health and relaxation benefits. (2005上海卷)
  A. taking B. taken
  C. having taken D. having been taken
  分析:答案选 A。因 people 与 take advantage of 是主动关系,排除选项 B 和 D;take不会发生在谓语 are signing up 之前,不用完成式,排除 C。
  四、考查非谓语动词用作伴随状语
  在通常情况下,表伴随情况的应用现在分词。如:
  1. “You can’t catch me!” Janet shouted,____ away. (2005全国卷Ⅲ)
  A. run B. running
  C. to run D. ran
  分析:答案选 B。现在分词作伴随状语。
  2. He glanced over at her,____ that though she was tiny;she seemed very well put together. (2005广东卷)
  A. noting B. noted C. to note D. having noted
  分析:答案选 A。因为 he 与 note 是主谓关系,且 note 与谓语动词 glanced 的动作同时发生,所以用现在分词的一般式作伴随状语。
  3. Daddy didn’t mind what we were doing,as long as we were together,____ fun. (2005重庆卷)
  A. had B. have C. to have D. having
  分析:答案选 D。用现在分词表伴随情况。
  说明:有时过去分词也可表伴随(注意过去分词同时还表被动关系),但高考很少考查此用法。如:
  He came in,followed by his wife. 他走了进来,后面跟着他的妻子。
  五、考查非谓语动词用作目的状语
  在通常情况下,用作目的状语只能是不定式。如:
  1.“Can the project be finished as planned?” “Sure,____ it completed in time,we’ll work two more hours a day.”(2005福建卷)
  A. having got B. to get C. getting D. get
  分析:答案选B。作目的状语只能用动词不定式。
  2. ____ more about university courses,call (920) 746-3789. (2005浙江卷)
  A. To find out B. Finding out C. Find out D. Having found out
  分析:答案选 A。作目的状语要用动词不定式。
  3. It was unbelievable that the fans waited outside the gym for three hours just ____ a look at the sports stars. (2005上海卷)
  A. had B. having C. to have D. have
  分析:答案选 C。“看看体育明星”是“在体育馆外等三个小时”的目的,作目的状语只能用动词不定式。
  六、考查非谓语动词用作结果状语
  1. 用现在分词表结果。如:
  He fired,killing one of the passers-by. 他开枪了,打死了一个过路人。
  Oil prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year,____ a record US $ 57.65 a barrel on April 4. (2005山东卷)
  A. have reached B. reaching C. to reach D. to be reaching
  分析:答案选 B。伴随着谓语动词的发生而产生的自然结果,用现在分词作结果状语。
  2. 用不定式表结果。如:
  He returned home to find his wife waiting for him. 他回到家发现他的妻子在等他。
  He hurried to the station only ____ that the train had left. (2005广东卷)
  A. to find B. finding C. found D. to have found
  分析:答案选 A。only后接不定式表结果时通常指一种意想不到的结果,常译为“结果却,不料”。
  七、考查非谓语动词用作宾语补足语
  原则上说,所有的非谓语动词形式均可用作宾语补足语,其区别是:不定式表未来,现在分词表进行,过去分词表完成和被动。如:
  1. I couldn’t do my homework with all that noise ____. (2005北京卷)
  A. going on B. goes on C. went on D. to go on
  分析:答案选 A。作 with 的宾语补足语要用非谓语动词,排除选项 B 和 C;与谓语动作同时发生用现在分词作宾语补足语,排除表示将来的不定式选项 D。
  2. You should understand the traffic rule by now.You’ve had it ____ often enough.(2005天津卷)
  A. explaining B. to explain C. explain D. explained
  分析:答案选 D。宾语 it 与 explain 是被动关系,用过去分词作宾补。
  八、考查非谓语动词的逻辑主语问题
  按照英语习惯,非谓语动词的逻辑主语应与句子一致,否则就应调整句子结构。如:
  While watching television,____. (2005全国卷Ⅲ)
  A. the door bell rang B. the doorbell rings
  C. we heard the doorbell ring D. we heard the doorbell rings
  分析:答案选 C。因为 watching 的逻辑主语一定是 we,排除选项 A 和 B;又因在hear 后作宾语补足语的是省略了 to 的不定式,所以选项D中的 rings 是错误的。
  九、考查非谓语动词用作主语的问题
  原则上说,动词用作主语,只能是不定式或动名词,不能是分词形式。这类考题还往往用动词原形作为干扰项进行考查,同学们做题需引起注意。如:
  It’s necessary to be prepared for a job interview. ____ the answers ready will be of great help. (2005北京卷)
  A. To have had B. Having had C. Have D. Having
  分析:答案选 D。动名词的一般式用作主语。
  十、考查“(be +)过去分词+介词”结构
  有一类“be+过去分词+介词”结构,如 be interested in,be worried about,be lost in,be dressed in 等,也往往是命题的热点。如:
  1. ____ in the mountains for a week,the two students were finally saved by the local police. (2005江苏卷)
  A. Having lost B. Lost C. Being lost D. Losing
  分析:答案选 B。因表示“迷路于”是lose oneself in,题中没有 oneself,所以 the two students 与 lose 是被动关系,应该用过去分词作状语。
  2. ____ in a white uniform,he looks more like a cook than a doctor. (2005湖南卷)
  A. Dressed B. To dress C. Dressing D. Having dressed
  分析:答案选 A。由 dress 的宾语一定是人或 oneself 可知,dress 与 he 是动宾关系,即 he 与 dress 是被动关系,要用过去分词作状语,Dressed in...=As he is dressed in...
  十一、非谓语动词的综合考查
  有时命题者会将多个知识点综合起来进行考查,如在考查被动式的同时兼考完成式,在考查不定式的同时兼考分词,等等。如:
  1. I don’t want ____ like I’m speaking ill of anybody,but the manager’s plan is unfair.(2005天津卷)
  A. to sound B. to be sounded
  C. sounding D. to have sounded
  分析:答案选 A。表示“想要做某事”want 后只能接 to do,排除选项 C;sound like 中 sound 是系动词,属不及物动词,不能用于被动语态,排除选项 B;sound 发生在 want 后,故不用完成式,排除选项 D。
  2. “Is Bob still performing?” “I’m afraid not. He is said ____ the stage already as he has become an official.” (2005江苏卷)
  A. to have left B. to leave
  C. to have been left D. to be left
  分析:答案选 A。因 he 与 leave 是主动关系,不用被动式,排除选项 C 和 D;由 already 可知,要用完成式。
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