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2008年高考英语复习:运用上下文和构词法猜词

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发表于 2016-6-27 12:22:42 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  南开中学 段胜利
  在平时的阅读和英语考试中,我们都会遇到生词,这很正常,也不可避免。根据文章提供的上下文和掌握构词法猜测词义,是我们学习和掌握英语必须具备的能力。对高考而言,这种能力尤为重要。从四年高考英语天津卷来看,阅读理解试题中总有一些题要考查同学们根据上下文和构词法知识猜出生词词义或熟词新义的能力。而从考试结果来看,猜词题一直都是难度大,区分度高的试题。在这个项目上得分,可以使自己的高考英语成绩占有优势。2004年至2007年的试题中,在不同的语篇里,分别要猜collision,juvenile obesity,inheritable trait和compassion等四个词(词组),虽然这几个猜词题都有很好的上下文,也有比较明显的“词干”提示,但考试的结果,其难度系数(正确选择率)却分别是:0.23,0.64,0.24和0.13,猜词成了大部分同学的“滑铁卢”。
  一、高考猜哪类词
  从近几年高考试题来看,猜词题既猜生词生义,也猜熟词生义;猜词里既有单词,又有短语;词类分布上,以实词(名词,动词,形容词,副词和代词等)为主。
  1.生词生义
  例一:Food Network producer Flay hopes the young cook will find a place on the network television. He says Lieberman’s charisma is key. “Food TV isn’t about food anymore,” says Flay. “It’s about your personality(个性)and finding a way to keep people’s eyeballs on your show.”
  What does the word “charisma” underlined in the text refer to?
  A. A natural ability to attract others.
  B. A way to show one’s achievement.
  C. Lieberman’s after-class interest.
  D. Lieberman’s fine cooking skill.
  答案A。charisma为非考纲词汇表上单词,其词义与下文的“It’s about your personality(个性)and finding a way to keep people’s eyeballs on your show.”有关。
  例二:Born in Chicago in 1902, brought up and schooled in Nebraska, the 19-year-old college graduate Ralph Tyler became hooked on teaching while teaching as a science teacher in South Dakota and changed his major from medicine to education.
  The words “hooked on teaching” underlined in the paragraph probably mean ________.
  A. attracted to teaching B. tired of teaching
  C. satisfied with teaching D. unhappy about teaching
  答案A。become/get hooked on sth为非考纲词汇表上词组,其词义可以通过下文的… and changed his major from medicine to education.来获得。
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