高考论坛

 找回密码
 立即注册
查看: 15|回复: 0

高考英语复习:2009年命题预测及名师指导

[复制链接]

10万

主题

10万

帖子

31万

积分

论坛元老

Rank: 8Rank: 8

积分
313767
发表于 2016-6-27 12:22:47 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  第一章 2009年命题预测及名师指导
2009年高考复习应试策略
北京市大兴一中特级教师 程中一
  高考渐行渐近,我们该如何准备高考?笔者根据多年的辅导经验和成功考生切身体会,建议考生在考前冲刺阶段做有针对性的准备:
  1.听力
  在高考复习进入冲刺的阶段,每天抽出几分钟听听课文录音或做做听力练习题。听力测试涉及的内容有:获取对话具体信息;把握对话主旨;领会对话的观点、态度及意图;推测背景、地点及对话者关系等。
  在做听力的过程中,考生要注意:保持良好的心理精神状态;快速浏览问题和选项;注重抓文章大意,不死抠个别词汇;边听边记;果断答题。
  2.单项选择
  单项选择试题具有以下特点:①内容覆盖面广,考查范围均为大纲中所列的所有语法项目——包括动词非谓语形式、时态、被动语态、情态动词、冠词、形容词、副词、代词、连词、从句、倒装、习惯表达法等;②重点突出,强调动词的考查;③突出语境的作用,提供语境间接考查语言知识的运用。因此,考生必须对语法部分进行全面、细致的复习。
  在单项选择题上,不易采用题海战术,但要把做过的一些题,特别是做错的题,反复地看一看,同时简单的题要总结规律,难题记死记牢即可。千万不要在难题上花费太多的时间和精力,要重视语境题、时态题、动词短语相关的单选题。在复习期间,可以采取相对集中的方式整理、复习,补补“漏子”,理理“辫子”,按照教学大纲的要求“先上口,后归纳,抓核心,辨差异,找规律,编口诀,举一反三,巧滚雪球”,使初、高中英语内容融会贯通。例如:
  (1) 不定式作宾补何时不带to?
  不定式作宾补何时不带to?    下面口诀给帮助。
  “两听”、“五看”、“一感觉”,   使役动词有三个。  
  help, find之后可带可不带(to),  它们可以排在外。
  两听,即hear, listen to;五看,即see, watch, notice, observe, look at;一感觉,即feel。
  (2) 接动词不定式作宾语的动词有哪些?   
  我们可用这样一个虚构词“merdowphla”(磨豆腐喽)帮助归纳记忆。每一个字母代表一个英语单词。m-mean(打算),manage(设法);e-expect(期盼);r-refuse(拒绝);d-dare(敢),desire(渴望), determine(决心),decide(决定),demand(要求);o-offer(企图);w-want(想要),wish(希望); p-promise(答应),pretend(假装), plan(计划);h-hope; l-long(渴望),learn(学习); a-ask(要求),  arrange(安排)。
  (3) 及物动词后宾语从句的谓语动词用should+动词原形:
  一坚持,二命令,四建议,五要求,
  其宾语从句用should + 动词原形,
  should既可以省略,
  should也可以保留。
  一坚持,即insist;二命令,即order, command;四建议,即suggest, propose ,advise,recommend;五要求,即ask, demand,  require,  request, urge。
  3. 完形填空
  完形填空选材一般比较新颖,贴近生活,具有一定难度。在最后的日子里,一定要把近几年的高考完形填空,大声朗读,形成完形语感,并反复揣摩,它会给我们展示设计完形题的思路和角度,做到知己知彼。同时我们应重视文章的整体性和逻辑性。完形填空的过程就是由已知信息推出未知信息的过程。而整体是背景,逻辑是线索,是由已知推出未知的必然道路。如果时间允许,可以把往年各省市的高考完形,作为热身的练习。这就要求考生答题时必须从各方面认真考虑。j从上下文考虑;k从词汇意义及用法的角度考虑;l从逻辑推理、常识等角度考虑;m从惯用法和搭配的角度考虑。做完形填空题应考虑这几个方面,但这并不意味着每个题目仅需要从一个方面进行分析。很多情况下,只有从词义、上下文、生活常识等多个角度考虑才能选出正确选项。因此,考生提笔做题以前一定要通读全文,认真考虑上下文的有关内容,让语法、搭配、时态、人称、行文逻辑诸方面服务于情景;反过来让文章意思制约语法等。
  4. 阅读理解
  阅读理解是高考的重头戏。在冲刺阶段,应有计划地安排考生多进行一些限时训练,通常每五篇阅读材料作为一组,在35到40分钟里完成。这样既可以保证考场上充沛的阅读精力和体力,又可以营造考试的氛围,还提高了阅读速度。不要忘了The examination is a race against time(考试就是和时间赛跑)。同时,为了适应高考阅读材料,不妨读一些难易程度适中、原汁原味的文章,有条件的同学可以读21th Century(成人版),English Salon,也许会起到无心插柳柳成荫的效果。我们不仅要加强阅读训练,而且要注重以下几个方面:阅读要有广度;阅读要有深度;阅读要有速度,按考试说明中35分钟的建议答题时间计算,读速应达60WPM左右。
  不但要快速阅读、整体理解,还要注意积累词语。“听不懂,说不出,读不通,写不好,都是英语单词记得少。”如果你的词汇量达到或超过大纲的要求,对付任何试题也就不成问题。做阅读题时,一遍浏览大意,二遍各个击破,三遍检查核对。阅读时眼中有字,心中揣意,把握命题原则——“大小猜判”。(大—— 考查大意;小—— 细节辨别;猜—— 字词句义;判—— 推理判断。)判断文章的中心思想时,注意全文的中心不可太具体,但也不能与文章内容相差太远。猜测词义一定要看上下文,因为英语的特点是没有上下文就没有意思。在做阅读理解题时,要学会将文章、题干、选项统一起来,在理解文章的基础上,领会考查内容。阅读理解不是考查考生语法知识,因此在做答时不能忽略细节,要利用细节对文意进行推理和判断,看各选项在意思上有什么不同,切勿忽视做题的第一印象。
  5. 单词拼写
  近几年起高考试题中又出现了单词拼写题。在评卷中发现它的正确率最低。考生备考中应注意:音形结合记忆;分式记忆(不规则动词)(AAA式,如put put put。ABB式,如buy bought bought。ABA式,如come came come。ABC式,如do did done。);分类记忆;对比记忆,如:come-go, right-left等;区别记忆,如同义词或近义词learn, study等,同音词、近音词write, right等,形似词quite, quilt, quick, quiz等;分解记忆,适用于复合词,如newspaper—news+paper等;联想记忆,如school联想到teacher, student, class, desk, classmate, headmaster, college, university等;前后缀记忆,如:care-careful-careless-carefully-carelessly等;“不等式”找感觉记忆,对表示频率及时光、岁月的词用“不等式”找感觉记忆,如:
  always>often>usually>sometimes>once in a while>never; year>season>month>week>day>hour>minute>second等;连词成句成文记忆。
  单词拼写考查的重点单词为以下三种情形:有的单词较长,难记住,有的属于仅靠发音也分不清字母的,还有的属于通过汉语意思较能猜测单词的。考生在答题过程中还要特别注意词尾的变化——名词的单复数,动词的时态、语态和人称,形容词和副词以及它们的比较等级。
  6. 短文改错
  短文改错的实质就是同学们自己考自己。在临战阶段同学之间可互相批改自己的习作,互相发现错误,这样既提高了写作水平又练习了改错。
  7. 写作
  也是同学们容易丢分的部分,越是到最后越要重视写作,要多看一些范文,多背一些好句,不要忘了:熟读唐诗三百首,不会写来也会吟。另外还要用一些常用动词和句式,做一些汉译英的练习。临阵磨枪,不快也光。考生答题过程中要注意:
  (1)注意审题,确定要点。
  (2)仔细阅读写作要求及注意事项,确定要点、确定格式、题材及基本要点。
  (3)扩展要点。先给要点加上主语和修饰语,然后丰富要点, 把要点扩展成句子,将句子补充完整,向高级升华。
  (4)连句成篇。连句成篇时,要注意正确使用连接词。
  (5)全面检查,书法规范。注意检查拼写、标点符号错误;人称、时态、语态错误;句子结构和逻辑错误;考虑语篇结构;考虑句式的变化和词汇的丰富。书法规范就是英语单的书写要规范,做到“横三齐,竖平行”。
  在高考的复习冲刺阶段,考生要在巩固已有知识的基础上,尽量在语境中掌握这些知识的用法,理解其含义,重视对活跃动词的复习,继续加大阅读,提高语感,为阅读和完形填空做好准备。同时注意文章的时效性,题材的多样化。特别关注人与人、人与自然的和谐,健康与饮食,环保与节能内容的文章,突出加强写作能力的培养和单词记忆。
  综上所述,只要我们吃透高考大纲,把握其特点和对考生的要求,具有扎实的基本功,加上良好的应试策略,师生共同努力,就能在2009年的高考中立于不败之地。

  第二章 英语科考试大纲导读
  2009年的《考试大纲》,比往年来得更早一些。
  《考试大纲》的提前颁布向广大师生透露出一个重要信号:高考不再是神秘的殿堂。高考改革始终坚持”在稳定中求发展”的命题指导思想,命题的基本原则依然是”突出语篇,注重交际,讲究灵活,强调应用”,不会出现明显的变化,不会折腾莘莘学子。
  与2008年相比,2009年的《考试大纲》基本上没有任何变化,只是在高考语法项目表中增加了词类项目,这样更加明确了考试内容,助于考生把握词类,对词类有个概括的了解。
  考生在备考过程中应仔细研读《考试大纲》中的内容,融会贯通,做到胸有成竹。一定要重视基础,例如:考纲词汇能否拼写正确?基本词汇和短语能否灵活运用?基本语法能否理解?基本句型能否掌握?各个题型的基本解题技巧是否熟练?书写是否规范?等等。
  最后,预祝考生们圆梦高考,再创佳绩。
  Ⅰ.考试性质
  普通高等学校招生全国统一考试是由合格的高中毕业生和具有同等学力的考生参加的选拔性考试。高等学校根据考生的成绩,按已确定的招生计划,德、智、体全面衡量,择优录取。因此,高考应有较高的信度、效度、适当的难度和必要的区分度。
  英语科考试是按照标准化测试要求设计的。
  【导读】《考试大纲》是根据普通高等学校对新生文化素质的要求,参照《中学教学大纲》并根据中学教学实际而制定的。它明确了考试的指导思想。
  Ⅱ.考试内容和要求
  根据普通高等学校对新生文化素质的要求,参照教育部2000年颁布的《全日制高级中学英语教学大纲(试验修订版)》,并考虑中学教学实际,制订本学科考试内容。
  一、语言知识
  要求考生能够适当运用基本的语法知识(见附录),掌握2 000左右的词汇及相关词组(见《全日制高级中学英语教学大纲(试验修订版)》)。
  【导读】语言知识题包括语法、词汇类单项填空题和完形填空题。语言知识主要考查:①语法和词汇知识在实际的、不同的情景中的运用;②语言必须适合具体的交际行为;③语言考核的焦点为达到交际的目的,交际行为除了需要语言能力外,还需要把握情况的能力等。
  二、语言运用
  1.听力
  要求考生听懂有关日常生活中所熟悉话题的简短独白和对话。考生应能:
  (1)理解主旨和要义;
  【导读】主旨要义一般比较明确,但有时会贯穿整个对话或独白,需要考生自己去归纳、概括。
  (2)获取事实性的具体信息;
  【导读】为说明和支持主旨,对话或独白总会出现一些具体信息,如时间、地点、人物等。这些信息是理解和把握对话或独白主旨不可少的要素,也常常是听力部分的重点考查项目。
  (3)对所听内容作出简单推断;
  【导读】推断能力在一定程度上可以体现一个人对口语的理解能力,因而也是听力测试考查的重点项目之一。
  (4)理解说话者的意图、观点和态度。
  【导读】一般来讲,说话者总会表明说话的意图,或是提出或回答问题,或是阐明自己的想法,或是表明自己的态度或意见,对此的理解或推断在一般交往中非常重要。
  【试题举例】
  M:Ladies and Gentlemen, let's welcome Jane Carter. Jane, you are so young.How can you sing so well?
  W:Well, Mr. Green. I like singing very much. And I've been doing this for a while. Above all I have Mr. James as my teacher.
  M:No wonder. I believe you'll do a wonderful job tonight. Now ladies and gentlemen, Jane Carter!
  1.What is the man doing?
  A. Giving a speech.   B. Chairing a meeting.    C. Introducing a person.
  2.Why does the woman sing so well?
  A.She has a great teacher.    B.She teaches singing.    C.She is young.
  1.【答案】C
  【解析】根据男声“let's welcome Jane Carter”可知他是在向别人介绍一个名叫Jane Carter的歌手。
  2.【答案】A
  【解析】根据女声“And I've been doing this for a while. Above all I have Mr. James as my teacher.”可知她歌唱得很好不仅是因为练了很长时间,主要还是有位好老师教她。
  2.阅读
  要求考生读懂公告、说明、广告以及书、报、杂志中关于一般性话题的简短文章。考生应能:
  (1)理解主旨和要义;
  【导读】文章的主旨大意一般出现在开头、结尾和过渡段。不过有时贯穿整篇文章。考生要培养快速浏览全文,提取主旨要义的能力。
  (2)理解文中具体信息;
  (3)根据上下文推断生词的词义;
  【导读】正确理解文章中单词或短语的含义,是理解文章的第一步,也是基础。英语单词的含义随语境的不同会有所不同。能根据上下文正确理解灵活变化的词义,才算是真正初步具备了一定的阅读理解能力。此外,不使用词典而通过阅读上下文推断生词的含义,是一个合格的读者所必须具备的能力,也是阅读测试中经常检测的一种能力。
  (4)作出简单判断和推理;
  (5)理解文章的基本结构;
  【导读】把握全篇的文脉,即句与句、段与段之间的逻辑关系。对这种能力的考查,一般反映在理解文中某一段落的作用或某些词语的指代关系的题目中。
  (6)理解作者的意图、观点和态度。
  【试题举例】(2008年全国卷Ⅰ)
  Last week my youngest son and I visited my father at his new home in Tucson,Arizona.He moved there a few years ago,and I was eager to see his new place and meet his friends.
  My earliest memories of my father are of a tall,handsome,successful man devoted to his work and family,but uncomfortable with his children.As a child I loved him;as a school girl and young adult(成年人)I feared him and felt bitter about him.He seemed unhappy with me unless I got straight A’s and unhappy with my boyfriends if their fathers were not as “successful” as he was.Whenever I went out with him on weekends,I used to struggle to think up things to say,feeling on guard.
  On the first day of my visit,we went out with one of my father’s friends for lunch at an outdoor cafe.We walked along that afternoon,did some shopping,ate on the street table,and laughed over my son’s funny  facial expressions.Gone was my father’s critical(挑剔的)air and strict  rules.Who was this person I knew as my father,who seemed so friendly and interesting to  be around?What had held him back before?
  The next day my dad pulled out his childhood pictures and told me quite a few stories about his own childhood.Although our times together became easier over the years,I never felt closer to him at that moment.After so many years,I’m at last seeing another side of my father.And in so doing,I’m delighted with my_new_friend.My dad,in his new home in Arizona,is back to me from where he was.
  56.Why did the author feel bitter about her father as a young adult?
  A.He was silent most of the time.
  B.He was too proud of himself.
  C.He did not love his children.
  D.He expected too much of her
  57.When the author went out with her father on weekends,she would feel________.
  A.nervous  B.sorry
  C.tired  D.safe
  58.What does the author think of her father after her visit to Tucson?
  A.More critical.  B.More talkative.
  C.Gentle and friendly.  D.Strict and hard­working.
  59.The underlined words “my new friend” in the last paragraph refer to________.
  A.the author’s   son
  B.the author’s father
  C.the friend of the author’s father
  D.the cafe owner
  【文章大意】本文是记叙文,主要讲述“我”和自己的小儿子去“我”父亲家看他的新房子的事情。我感受到了父亲的巨大变化:他以前那种严厉冷酷的架势不见了,多了一份亲切、关怀。
  56.【答案】D
  【解析】考查细节理解。答案信息在第二段“...felt bitter about him. He seemed unhappy with me unless I got straight A’s...”。
  57.【答案】A
  【解析】细节判断题。信息提示在第二段最后一句话:“Whenever I went out with him on weekends, I used to struggle to think up things to say, feeling on guard.”
  58.【答案】C
  【解析】细节理解题。从第三段与第四段可找到答案。
  59.【答案】B
  【解析】考查指代问题。根据全文可知,父亲以前很苛刻,我和他关系很疏远,如今他变了,容易让人亲近了,此时把父亲称作自己的“新”朋友,后文信息提示“my new friend. My dad, in his new home in Arizona, is back to me from where he was.”
  (2008年北京卷)
  Domestic(驯养的)horses now pull ploughs,race in the Kentucky Derby,and carry police.But early horses weren’t tame(驯服的)enough to perform these kinds of tasks.Scientists think the first interactions humans had with horses were far different from those today.
  Thousands of years ago,people killed the wild horses that lived around them for food.Over time,people began to catch the animals and raise them.This was the first step in domestication.
  As people began to tame and ride horses,they chose to keep those animals that had more desirable characteristics.For example,people may have chosen to keep horses that had a gentle personality so they could be ridden more easily.People who used horses to pull heavy loads would have chosen to keep stronger animals.Characteristics like strength are partly controlled by the animals’genes.So as the domesticated horses reproduced,they passed the characteristics on to their young.Each new generation of horses would show more of these chosen characteristics.
  Modern­day horse breeds come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes.This variety didn’t exist in the horse population before domestication.The Shetland horse is one of the smallest breeds-typically reaching only one meter tall.With short,strong legs,the animals were bred to pull coal out of mine shafts(矿井)with low ceilings.Huge horses like the Clydesdale came on the scene around 1700.People bred these heavy,tall horses to pull large vehicles used for carrying heavy loads.
  The domestication of horses has had great effects on societies.For example,horses were important tools in the advancement of modern agriculture.Using them to pull ploughs and carry heavy loads allowed people to farm more efficiently.Before they were able to ride horses,humans had to cross land on foot.Riding horses allowed people to travel far greater distances in much less time.That encouraged populations living in different areas to interact with one another.The new form of rapid transportation helped cultures spread around the world.
  59.Before domestication horses were.
  A.caught for sports  B.hunted for food
  C.made to pull ploughs   D.used to carry people
  60.The author uses the Shetland horse as an example to show.
  A.it is smaller than the Clydesdale horse
  B.horses used to have gentle personalities
  C.some horses have better shapes than others
  D.horses were of less variety before domestication
  61.Horses contributed to the spread of culture by.
  A.carrying heavy loads
  B.changing farming methods
  C.serving as a means of transport
  D.advancing agriculture in different areas
  62.The passage is mainly about.
  A.why humans domesticated horses
  B.how humans and horses needed each other
  C.why horses came in different shapes and sizes
  D.how human societies and horses influenced each other
  【文章大意】文章从现代马的功用与过去的功用的不同入手,讲述了人类如何对马进行选择驯化,造成了马的种群的多样性;同时也介绍了马的驯化对人类社会的影响。
  59.【答案】B
  【解析】细节判断题。由第一、二段可判断,人类先是猎马为食,然后喂养,最后才是根据人类需要进行驯化。
  60.【答案】D
  【解析】细节推断题。由第四段第二句“This variety didn’t exist in the horse population before domestication”可推断出马被驯化前没有如此多的种群,再由作者所举的例子“the shetland horse”可看出马是根据人的需要从单一种群被驯化为多种种群的。
  61.【答案】C
  【解析】细节判断题。从最后一段“Riding horses allowed people to travel far greater distances in much less time .”和“The new form of rapid transportation helped cultures spread around the world.”可判断马在文化传播中所扮演的角色为交通工具。
  62.【答案】D
  【解析】主旨大意题。文章前两段引入马的驯化这一话题。第三、四段讲述人类根据自身需要把马驯化为多个种群。第五段讲述了马对人类社会发展的影响。只有D项涵盖了文章的内容。
  3.写作
  要求考生根据题示进行书面表达。考试应能:
  (1)准确使用语法和词汇;
  (2)使用一定的句型、词汇,清楚、连贯地表达自己的意思。
  【导读】写作是四项语言技能中不可分割的一个重要部分,要求考生在给出的特定情境下按特定要求进行书面表达。近几年写作主题的选择有结合社会热点的趋势。所以考生备考时可阅读一些英语时文,背诵其中的优美句子等。
  【试题举例】(2008年四川卷)
  你校学生会准备办一期英语墙报,主题为:保护环境从我做起。请你根据下图所示写一篇英语短文。
  注意:
  1.词数100左右,开头语已为你写好;
  2.可适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。
What Can I Do for Our Environment?
  Everyone_can_do_something_for_our_environment.______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  One Possible Version
What Can I Do for Our Environment?
  Everyone_can_do_something_for_our_environment.For me,I should try to save electricity in my daily life.For example,if I am the last person to leave the classroom in the evening,I will always remember to turn off the lights. In order to protect our forests,I will use paper wisely.I should try to use both sides of paper whenever it is possible. I will not use things like paper cups and disposable chopsticks because they are made of wood.I believe that doing all these small things will improve our environment and help make our world a better place to live in.
  【写作指导】本文主题是环保,要求考生介绍如何从自身做起保护环境,时态以将来时为主。显然图画中已给出了一些参考:节约用电,随手关灯;保护森林;双面用纸;拒绝一次性纸杯、筷子等。文章要点包括:如何从自身做起,自己的决心及希望等。

  Ⅲ.考试形式与试卷结构
  1.答卷方式:闭卷、笔试。
  2.考试时间:120分钟。试卷满分为150分。
  3.题型:试卷一般可包括多项选择题、完形填空题、听力填空题、短文改错、书面表达等题型。
  4.试题难易比例:试卷包括容易题、中等题和难题,以中等题为主。
  Ⅳ.题型示例
  一、多项选择题
  (一)考查听力
  M:Well, I wonder why the office is still not open.
  W:But it's not yet eight. In fact, it's only a quarter to eight.
  1.At what time does the office open?
  A.7:45.      B.8:15.      C.8:00.
  M:It's Alice's birthday tomorrow.
  W:Are you sure? I think it should be the day after tomorrow.
  M:Well, let me see. Oh, I'm sorry. You're right. It is the day after tomorrow. Shall we buy her a present?
  W:Yes, of course. Shall we give her some flowers?
  M:Flowers are lovely. But I think it's better to buy her a nice box of chocolates.
  W.Alice doesn't like sweet things. Didn't you know that?
  M:You're right. Er...I know. We can give her a record. She loves music.
  W:That's a good idea. Let's go to the music shop and choose one for her.
  2.When is Alice's birthday?
  A.The next day.  B.The day after next.  C.The day they had the talk.
  3.What will the man and the woman buy for Alice?
  A.A record.  B.Some flowers.  C.A box of chocolates.
  【试题举例】
  Good afternoon, everybody and welcome to this class on English words. I hope that all of you can hear me. If not, please let me know. I am Professor John Morris. I'll be your teacher for the next 13 weeks. As you can probably tell this is one of the most popular and crowded classes. Indeed, every time these courses are offered, this room is very full. Why is that? Well, in order to use the English language, it's very important to have at least a basic understanding of how words are formed. Just to mention one figure, and there are many. There are about one million words in English. If you are an English learner, you might wonder how you can possibly remember all of these words. Well, for one thing you don't have to. No native speaker exists who knows all of the words in the English language. Besides there are shortcuts. Shortcuts? Yes, for example, if you know how words are formed by using parts of words from other languages, such as Greek and French, you'll understand a good number of English words when you first come across them. Let me put it this way, knowing the rules will help you master a large number of words. This is probably the No. 1 reason why this class is so popular.
  17.Where can you most probably hear this talk?
  A. In a class of the English language.
  B. In a class of the Greek language.
  C. In a class of the French language.
  18.How long does the class last?
  A. 11 weeks.  B. 13 weeks.  C. 15 weeks.
  19.What is “the short­cut” to learning words according to the speaker?
  A. Taking more courses.
  B. Reading basic words aloud.
  C. Learning how words are formed.
  20.Why is the class popular?
  A. It is not offered each term.
  B. It's taught by Professor Morris.
  C. It helps to master some useful rules.
  17. A 18. B 19. C 20. C
  (二)考查语法和词汇知识
  1.Paul doesn't have to be made ________. He always works hard.
  A. study  B. to study  C. studied  D. studying
  2.I first met Lisa three years ago when we ________at a radio station together.
  A. have worked  B. had been working
  C. were working  D. had worked
  3.She thought I was talking about her daughter, ________, in fact, I was talking about my daughter.
  A. whom  B. where  C. which  D. while
  4.—When shall we meet again?
  —Make it ________day you like; it's all the same to me.
  A. one  B. any  C. another  D. some
  【试题举例】
  (1)时态、语态
  1.(2008年全国卷Ⅰ)—Have you known Dr.Jackson for a long time?
  —Yes,since she________the Chinese Society.
  A.has joined  B.joins
  C.had joined  D.joined
  【答案】D
  【解析】考查连词since从句的时态。若该主句为现在完成时,其since从句为一般过去时。解答此题关键是补出答语中的主句(I have known she)省略了。
  2.(2008年北京卷)No decisionabout any future appointment until all the candidates have been interviewed.
  A.will be made  B.is made
  C.is being made   D.has been made
  【答案】A
  【解析】考查动词的时态语态。A项为将来时的被动形式。B项为现在时的被动结构;C项为现在进行时的被动结构;D项为现在完成时的被动结构。本题的关键是句子的后半句“...until all the...”,直到所有的候选者都面试完,可知 decision 将要被作出。
  (2)情态动词
  1.(2008年重庆卷)—I can't find my purse anywhere.
  —You________have lost it while shopping.
  A.may  B.can  C.should  D.would
  【答案】A
  【解析】考查情态动词表推测的用法。may have done和can have done都可以用来对过去事实进行推测,表示“可能已经”,只不过表示此意义时,can have done只能用于疑问句中。而C项should have done表示“本应该做而没有做”;D项would have done 表示“想做却没有做”。
  2.—She looks very happy. She________have passed the exam.
  —I guess so. It's not difficult after all.
  A. should  B. could  C. must  D. might
  【答案】C
  【解析】根据上文“She looks very happy.”可知她肯定是考试通过了才会这样高兴。must have done sth. 表示对过去肯定的推测,有“一定……”的含义。
  (3)非谓语动词
  1.(2008年四川卷)We had an anxious couple of weeks________for the results of the experiment.
  A.wait  B.to be waiting
  C.waited  D.waiting
  【答案】D
  【解析】考查非谓语动词的用法。句意为:我们焦虑地度过了几周,等待着实验的结果。wait与主语是主动关系,故用“waiting” 表伴随。
  2.________that she didn't do a good job, I don't think I am abler than her.
  A. To have said  B. Having said
  C. To say  D. Saying
  【答案】B
  【解析】根据句子结构,前半部分是状语,意思是“我虽然说过她没干好工作,但我并不认为自己比她能干”。“说她工作没干好”的动作发生在“认为”之前,因此使用现在分词的完成时。
  (4)定语从句
  1.By serving others, a person focuses on someone other than himself or herself,________can be very eye­opening and rewarding.
  A. who  B. which
  C. what  D. that
  【答案】B
  【解析】根据句型结构此处应为一个非限制性定语从句,且因引导词在定语从句中作主语并表示物,所以应该使用关系代词which。
  2.After graduation she reached a point in her career________she needed to decide what to do.
  A. that  B. what
  C. which  D. where
  【答案】D
  【解析】根据句型结构这句是一个限制性定语从句,修饰point,引导词在这里表示处所或位置,在从句中作地点状语,因此应该使用关系副词where,意即“在这一点上她意识到她该决定做什么了”。
  (5)状语从句
  (2008年湖南卷)________the Internet is of great help,I don’t think it’s a good idea to spend too much time on it.
  A.If  B.While   C.Because  D.As
  【答案】B
  【解析】考查连词。此处意思是“尽管网络很有帮助,……”,选项中能表示让步的只有while,相当于although。其他选项都不能表示让步的意思。
  (6)名词性从句
  ________parents say and do has a life­long effect on their children.
  A. That  B. Which  C. What  D. As
  【答案】C
  【解析】根据句型结构可知本句是一个带主语从句的复合句,what在这里相当于the things that,其他选项都不够完整或不合适。
  (7)特殊句式
  1.(2008年重庆卷)Only when I left my parents for Italy________how much I loved them.
  A.I realized  B.I had realized   C.had I realized    D.did I realize
  【答案】D
  【解析】既考查倒装句又涉及动词时态的判断。若“only”置于句首后面紧跟状语,则主句应该用部分倒装,即一般疑问句语序,由此判断A、B项错误。C项动词使用过去完成时态,表示realize“意识到”这个动作先于left“离开”发生,不合题意,所以不正确。
  2.—You should apologize to her, Barry.
  —________, but it's not going to be easy.
  A. I suppose so  B. I feel so
  C. I prefer to  D. I like to
  【答案】A
  【解析】考查省略现象。根据上下文可知回答者是同意向她道歉,但又认为这不容易。应使用“I suppose so”表示认可,使用so是一种省略,代替了一个句子。
  3.It ________we had stayed together for a couple of weeks ________I found we had a lot in common.
  A. was until; when
  B. was until; that
  C. wasn't until; when
  D. wasn't until; that
  【答案】D
  【解析】考查强调句型。这句意思是“直到相处了几个星期后我们才知道我们有很多相似之处”,这句是not until的强调句型,结构为:It is/ was not until...that。
  (8)情景交际
  1.—Have you been wasting time on computer games again?
  —________. I've been studying a lot and I need a break.
  A.No way  B.Not really
  C.I don't agree  D.I couldn't agree more
  【答案】B
  【解析】根据后面的回答“I've been studying a lot and I need a break.”说明后者不同意前者的问话,意思是他并没有真正浪费很多时间打电脑游戏而是学习很用功,故选择“Not really”。No way“没门”是断然拒绝对方的提议,“I don't agree”是反对对方的观点,“I couldn't agree more”是完全赞同对方的观点。
  2.(2008年江西卷)—I think you’d better type this letter again before Mr.Smith sees it.
  —Oh,dear!
  A.Who cares?   B.No problem.
  C.I don’t mind at all.   D.Is it as bad as that?
  【答案】D
  【解析】考查交际用语。前者说:我想你最好在Mr. Smith看见这封信之前把它重新打一遍。后者的答语前半段说: Oh, dear!(天哪!),根据当时的情景,后面应该是说:Is it as bad as that? (有那么糟糕吗?)A.Who cares?“谁在乎呢?”B. No problem“没问题”; C. I don’t mind at all“我根本不在意”。均不符合当时的语境。
  (三)考查阅读理解
  We walked in so quietly that the nurse at the desk didn’t even lift her eyes from the book.Mum pointed at a big chair by the door and I knew she wanted me to sit down.While I watched,mouth open in surprise,Mum took off her hat and coat and gave them to me to hold.She walked quietly to the small room by the lift and took out a wet mop(拖把).She pushed the mop past the desk and as the nurse looked up,Mum nodded and said,“Very dirty floors.”
  “Yes,I’m glad they’ve finally decided to clean them,”the nurse answered.She looked at Mum strangely and said,“But aren’t you working late?”
  Mum just pushed harder,each swipe(拖)of the mop taking her farther and farther down the hall.I watched until she was out of sight and the nurse had turned back to writing in the big book.
  After a long time Mum came back.Her eyes were shining.She quickly put the mop back and took my hand.As we turned to go out of the door,Mum nodded politely to the nurse and said,“Thank you.”
  Outside,Mum told me,“Dagmar is fine.No fever.”
  “You saw her,Mum?”
  “Of course. I told her about the hospital rules,and she will not expect us until tomorrow.Dad will stop worrying as well.It’s a fine hospital.But such floors!A mop is no good.You need a brush.”
  1.When she took a mop from the small room,what Mum really wanted to do was__________.
  A.to clean the floor  B.to please the nurse
  C.to see a patient  D.to surprise the story­teller
  2.When the nurse talked to Mum she thought Mum was a __________.
  A.nurse  B.visitor
  C.patient  D.cleaner
  3.After reading the story what can we infer about the hospital?
  A.It is a children’s hospital.
  B.It has strict rules about visiting hours.
  C.The nurses and doctors there don’t work hard.
  D.A lot of patients come to this hospital every day.
  4.Why did Mum go to see Dagmar in the hospital?
  A.To give her some message about Dad.
  B.To make sure her room was clean.
  C.To check that she was still there.
  D.To find out how she was.
  5.Which of the following words best describes Mum?
  A.polite  B.patient
  C.changeable  D.clever
  【试题举例】(2008年陕西卷)
  This was no ordinary class. The students who came together were all science or engineering professors at Cornell University. They had interrupted their research to accept an invitation to take part in an unusual experiment: “an interesting week of poetry.” This class was part of a study to answer the questions: Why is science difficult for many nonscience students? What can teachers learn about teaching if they take a class that is not in their field?
  The students in the poetry class listened to lectures and took notes. They had reading tasks and had to write three short papers. All students noticed one thing-the importance of spoken words. In science and engineering classes, the instructors put tables and drawings on the blackboard. But in this poetry class, the instructors just talked. They didn’t write anything on the board.
  The scientists and engineers noticed one similarity between science and poetry. In both subjects, students need to find layers (层次)of meaning . Some layers are simple, clear, and on   the surface; other layers are deeper and more difficult. This search for different levels of meaning doesn’t happen much in undergraduate(本科)science classes, but it is important later, in graduate school. And it is always important in humanities(人文学科).
  Both the poetry instructors and their students learned something about teaching from this experience. One poetry instructor, for example, now sees the importance of using careful, clear definitions(定义) when he explains a poem.He also plans to be more informative as he teaches. Most of the scientists agreed on several points. First, humanities classes might help science students to see patterns and decide which information is important. Second, the poetry class was fun. One engineer decided, “We need to change the way we teach engineering to make it an enjoyable experience for students.”
  But perhaps the most important result of the experience was this: All of the professors began to think about how they teach and how they can teach better.
  49.What do we know about this unusual class?
  A. The teachers did lots of writing on the board.
  B. The teachers were invited to attend several lectures.  
  C. The students were professors from a university.
  D. The students were studying science and humanities.
  50. The experiment was designed to find out________.
  A. how to teach the students in the science class  
  B. whether poetry is difficult for science students  
  C. what to be taught in the humanities class  
  D. why many humanities students find science hard
  51. Finding levels of meaning is________.
  A. important for graduate students in humanities  
  B. difficult for graduate students in humanities  
  C.common for undergraduate students in science  
  D. easy for undergraduate students in science
  52. What did the science professors learn after the experiment?
  A. They should change the way they teach.  
  B. A poem could be explained in clear definitions.   
  C.A poetry class could be more informative.  
  D. Their teaching was an enjoyable experience.
  【文章大意】本文介绍了一堂不同寻常的课。
  49. 【答案】C
  【解析】推理判断题。根据文章第一句可知本题选C。
  50. 【答案】D
  【解析】推理判断题。由第一自然段的后两句可知本题选D。
  51. 【答案】A
  【解析】细节理解题。由第三自然段的后两句可知本题选A。
  52.【答案】A
  【解析】细节理解题。根据文章最后一自然段可知本题选A。
  二、完形填空题
  Washoe is a young chimpanzee(黑猩猩). She is no __1__chimpanzee, though. Scientists are doing a research __2__ her. They want to see how civilized(驯化)she can __3__. Already she does many things a human being can do.
  For example, she has been learning how to exchange __4__ with people. The scientists are teaching her __5__ language.
  When she wants to be picked __6__, Washoe points up with one finger.
  She rubs her teeth with her finger __7__ she wants to brush her teeth. This is done after every meal.
  Washoe has also been __8__ to think out and find answers to problems. Once she was put in a __9__ with food hanging from the ceiling. It was too high to __10__.
  After she considered the __11__,she got a tall box to__12__.
  The food was still too high to be reached. Washoe found a __13__ pole.
  Then she climbed onto the __14__, grasped(抓取)the pole, and   __15__ down the food with the pole. Washoe __16__ like a human, too. The scientists keep her in fully furnished house. After a hard __17__in the laboratory, she goes home. __18__she plays with her toys.
  She__19__enjoys watching television before going to bed.
  Scientists hope to__20__more about people by studying our closest relative chimpanzee.
  1.A.foolish  B.simple  C. special  D.ordinary
  2.A.for  B.on   C.to  D.by
  3.A.experience  B.change  C.develop  D.become
  4.A.actions  B.views  C.messages  D.feelings
  5.A.human  B.sign  C.spoken  D.foreign
  6.A.out  B.at  C.on  D.up
  7.A.when  B.until  C.since  D.while
  8.A.trained  B.raised  C.ordered  D.led
  9.A.hole  B.zoo  C.room  D.museum
  10.A.pull  B.see  C.eat  D.reach
  11.A.problem  B.position  C.food  D.ceiling
  12.A.stand by  B.stand on  C.stand up  D.stand with
  13.A.straight  B.strong  C.long  D.heavy
  14.A.wall  B.box  C.ceiling  D.pole
  15.A.knocked  B.picked  C.took  D.pulled
  16.A.lives  B.works  C.thinks  D.plays
  17.A.task  B.lesson  C.time  D.day
  18.A.But  B.There  C.So  D.Besides
  19.A.quite  B.already  C.even  D.still
  20.A.see  B.answer  C.learn  D.gain
  【试题举例】(2008年上海卷)
  Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A,B, C and D.Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context.
  People think children should play sports. Sports are fun, and children keep healthy while playing with others. However, playing sports can have__50__effects on children. It may produce feelings of poor self?respect or aggressive behavior in some children. According to research on kids and sports, 40 000 000 kids play sports in the US. Of these, 18 000 000 say they have been__51__at or called names while playing sports. This leaves many children with a bad __52__of sports. They think sports are just too aggressive.
  Many researchers believe adults, especially parents and coaches, are the main__53__of too much aggression in children’s sports. They believe children__54__aggressive adult behavior. This behavior is then further strengthened through both positive and negative feedback.Parents and coaches are powerful teachers because children usually look up to them. Often these adults behave aggressively themselves, sending children the message that__55__is everything.Many parents go to children’s sporting events and shout__56__at other players or cheer when their child behaves__57__. As well, children are even taught that hurting other players is__58__or are pushed to continue playing even when they are injured.__59__, the media makes violence seem exciting. Children watch adult sports games and see violent behavior replayed over and over on television.
  As a society, we really need to__60__this problem and do something about it. Parents and coaches__61__should act as better examples for children. They also need to teach children better__62__. They should not just cheer when children win or act aggressively. They should teach children to__63__themselves whether they win or not. Besides, children should not be allowed to continue to play when they are injured. If adults allow children to play when injured,this gives the message that__64__is not as important as winning.
  50. A. restrictive   B. negative   C.active   D. instructive
  51. A. knocked   B. glanced   C.smiled  D. shouted
  52. A. impression  B. concept   C.taste  D. expectation
  53. A. resource  B. cause   C.course  D. consequence
  54. A. question   B. understand  C.copy   D. neglect
  55. A. winning  B. practising   C.fun   D. sport
  56. A. praises   B. orders  C.remarks   D. insults
  57. A. proudly  B. ambitiously   C.aggressively   D. bravely
  58. A. acceptable  B. impolite   C.possible   D. accessible
  59. A. By contrast   B. In addition   C.As a result   D. After all
  60. A. look up to  B. face up to  C.make up for  D. come up with
  61. A. in particular   B. in all  C.in return   D. in advance
  62. A. techniques  B. means  C.values  D. directions
  63. A. respect   B. relax   C.forgive  D. enjoy
  64. A. body  B. fame   C. health  D. spirit
  【文章大意】成年人的影响让孩子们的体育运动失去了应有的意义,他们互相谩骂,甚至为了胜利不择手段。解铃还须系铃人,成年人要以身作则,为孩子树立好的榜样。
  50.【答案】 B
  【解析】根据本句中的“However”可知表示的是意思的转折,由此可判断B项正确。
  51. 【答案】D
  【解析】本句中的“called names”表示“谩骂”可知D项正确。其余三项都与之不符。
  52. 【答案】A
  【解析】上一句提到很多孩子在进行体育运动时经常被训斥甚至挨骂,由此可知他们对体育运动的“印象”不好。后三项分别表示“概念”“品位”“期望”,都不符合所给语境。
  53. 【答案】B
  【解析】很多研究人员认为成年人,尤其是父母和教练,是儿童运动中存在大量侵略行为的主要“根源”。A项表示“资源”;C项表示“过程”;D项表示“结果”。
  54. 【答案】C
  【解析】上一句提到孩子的行为是受大人的影响,由此可知他们是在“模仿”有侵略性的成年人的行为。其余选项都与上文不符。
  55. 【答案】A
  【解析】根据上文中的内容可知成年人在向孩子传递“获胜就是一切”的信息。成年人之所以采用侵略性行为,目的就是为了获得胜利,由此可排除其余选项。
  56. 【答案】D
  【解析】上文提到的是成年人的侵略性行为,由此可知他们“侮辱”其他孩子。B项表示“命令”,不符合常识;C项表示“评价”,与上文不符。
  57. 【答案】C
  【解析】上文提到的是成年人在用自己的行为影响孩子,由此可判断此项正确。其余三项都是肯定意义,可排除。
  58. 【答案】A
  【解析】孩子甚至被教导伤害其他运动员是“可以接受的”。C项是可能的,因此不恰当;D项表示“可以进入的;能够接近的”,语意均不恰当。
  59. 【答案】B
  【解析】上文叙述的是成年人对孩子的不良影响,此处叙述的是媒体火上加油,由此可知表示递进关系。其余三项都与上文不符。
  60. 【答案】B
  【解析】根据上文可知作者对上述行为表示反对,所以要“面对”这个问题并采取措施。A项表示“尊敬”;C项表示“弥补”;D项表示“想出”,都不符合所给语境。
  61. 【答案】A
  【解析】上文叙述的是父母和教练的过错,所以他们“尤其”要为孩子树立良好的榜样。后三项分别表示“总计”“作为回报”“提前”。
  62. 【答案】C
  【解析】上文提到他们在用自身的侵略行为影响孩子,而此处是奉劝他们加以改正,由此可知是教育孩子要有好的“价值观”。其余三项都与上文不吻合。
  63. 【答案】D
  【解析】孩子们进行体育活动的目的只是为了“高兴”。前三项都不符合常识。
  64. 【答案】C
  【解析】孩子们进行体育活动的主要目的是为了增进健康,如果成年人让孩子在受伤的情况下继续比赛,他们会认为“健康”没有赢得比赛重要。
  附2 2009年与2008年考纲差异
  【导读】2009年考试大纲与2008年相比内容基本一致,只是“语法项目表”部分增加了“词类:名词、形容词、副词、动词、代词、冠词、数词、介词、连词、感叹词”项目。

  第三章 知识大盘点
  一、英语常用句型
  1.否定句型
  1)一般否定句
  I don't know this. No news is good news.
  There is no person (smoking)/ not a person/ not any person (smoking) in the house.
  2)特指否定
  She went to his office, not to see him.
  I am sorry for not coming on time.
  I don't think/ believe/ suppose/ feel/ imagine you are right.
  3)部分否定
  All is not gold that glitters.
  I don't know all of them.
  I can't see everybody/everything.
  Both of them are not right.
  4)全体否定
  None of my friends smoke.
  I can see nothing/nobody.
  Neither of them is right.
  Nothing can be so simple as this.
  5)延续否定
  You didn't see him, neither/nor did I.
  You don't know, I don't know either.
  He doesn't know English, let alone/ to say nothing of/ not to speak of (更不用说)French.
  6)半否定句
  We seldom/ hardly/ scarcely/ barely hear such fine singing.
  I know little English. I saw few people.
  7)双重否定
  You can't make something out of nothing.
  What's done cannot be undone.
  There is no sweet without sweat.
  No gain without pains.
  I can't help /keep/ laughing whenever I hear it.
  8)排除否定
  Everyone is ready except you.
  He did nothing but play.
  But for your help, I couldn't have done it.
  9)加强否定
  Whatever you say, I won't do it at all.
  I can't see it any more, though I have looked for it everywhere.
  He is now a man. He is no longer a boy.
  2.判断句型
  1)一般判断句
  It is important for us to learn English.
  It is kind of you to help me. Sincere means honest.
  The boy is called/ named Tom.
  We regarded/consider it as an honor.
  2)强调判断
  It is English that we should learn.
  It is he who helped me a lot.
  3)弱式判断
  Your sentence doesn't sound/ look/ appear/ feel right.
  You look/ seem as if/ as though you had been there before.
  Maybe/ Perhaps she is ill.
  It is possible that he hasn't grasped what you have said.
  4)注释判断
  He can remember so many English words, that is (to say) he is a living dictionary(活字典).
  5)正反判断
  That sounds all right, but in fact it is on the contrary/ it is not.
  6)比较判断
  It is more a picture than a poem.
  He or you are wrong.
  Either he is right or I am.
  3.祝愿祈使句式
  1)一般句式
  Study hard and keep fit.
  2)强调句式
  Do tell me. It's no need to keep it a secret.
  Never tell a lie. You should be an honest boy.
  3)委婉祈使句
  Please tell me the truth.
  Would/Will/Won't do me a favor?
  Would/Do you mind my smoking?
  What/How about going on foot?
  4) 建议祈使句
  Let us go. Let us know the time.
  Let's not waste the time.
  You'd better start early.
  Shall we listen to some music?
  Why don't you get something to drink?
  Suppose/ Supposing you pick me up at about six?
  I suggest we (should) take the train instead of a bus.
  5)祝愿句
  Success to you!
  Wish you a good journey.
  May you have a happy marriage?
  Allow me to propose a toast to our friendship!

  4.数词句型
  1)表数目
  It is exactly ten o'clock/ It's ten o'clock sharp.
  It is five miles away from here.
  He is more than/over/ at least/not less than 20.
  He is under/ at most/no more than 20.
  2) 表年月日
  He was born on April 22 1994/in 1994 on the morning of Oct.1.
  3) 表年龄
  He is 20 years old/ years of age.
  He is at the age of 10.
  He is in his teens/ twenties/ thirties/...
  4) 表倍数
  It is four times that of last years.
  This is four times as big (again) as that one.
  This is four times bigger than that one.
  The income is double what it was.
  The output of coal was 200% greater than in 1998.
  5) 表计量
  It is 10 meters long/ wide/ high. / 10 meters in length/ width/ height.
  It costs me 100 yuan.
  I spent 10 hours finishing it.
  It took me 10 days to finish it.
  It is worth 100 yuan.
  5.关联指代句型
  1) 两项关联
  I have two books, one is Chinese; the other English.
  I have five books, one is Chinese; the others English.
  To say is one thing, but/ and to do is another.
  On (the) one hand, I am your teacher, and on the other hand, I am also your friend.
  Some like to play football, others are fond of basketball.
  2) 先后顺序
  First/ Firstly, I wish good health, second/secondly success in your study, third/ thirdly good luck in everything.
  First stop, then look, finally cross.
  At first/ In the beginning he works hard. Later/ Afterwards he is not so diligent.
  3) 修饰限制
  This is the same book as I lost yesterday.
  This is the same book that I lost yesterday. (同一本书)
  Don't trust such a man as over praise you.
  He/ One/ Those/ They who should come failed to appear.
  A man/ A person/ The one/ Anyone/ People who saw her liked her very much.
  The day/ time/ moment will come when China is the strongest in the world.
  4)两项连接
  He can speak not only English but also French.
  The book is both interesting and instructive.
  It is neither cold nor hot.
  Please either come in or go out.
  The old worker has experience and knowledge as well.
  5) 加和关系
  Besides literature, we have grammar and writing.
  Apart from oxygen, there are some other gases in the air.
  In addition to“if”, there are many other conjunctions that can introduce conditional clauses.
  I must go now, incidentally, if you want that book.
  You seem to like tea, so do I.
  6.比较句型
  1) 等比句
  He is as tall as I.
  He is the same height as I.
  She is no less diligent than he.
  The lab is no better than a cottage.
  2)差比句
  I speak English worse than he does.
  He is not so/as tall as I am.
  3)极比句
  He is the tallest of all in the class.
  None/No one is so blind as those that won't see.
  Nothing is so easy as this.
  I can't agree more.
  I have never spent a better night.
  4) 比例句
  The more a man knows, the more he feels his ignorance(无知).
  5)择比句
  He is taller than any other boy in the class.
  It is better late than never.
  They would die than live as slaves.
  He prefers doing to talking.
  He prefers to do rather than to talk.
  He prefers mathematics to English.
  I'd rather stay here.
  6)对比句
  You think me idle, but on the contrary, I am busy.
  They are working hard while you are wasting your time.

  7.比喻句型
  She is as cute as a newborn kitten.
  You are my star in the night.
  8.条件假设句
  1)一般事实
  If we succeed, what will the people say?
  Suppose it rains, what shall we do?
  Persevere(坚持)and you'll succeed.
  2) 虚拟条件句
  If I were a teacher, I wouldn't scold my pupils like that.
  If you had seen it, you would have been moved.
  3) 反条件句
  Unless you try, you'll never succeed.
  Don't move, or/ else/ otherwise I'll shoot.
  4) 唯一条件句
  If only I have another chance, I shall do better.
  Only in this way can we learn English well.
  So/ As long as we don't lose heart, we'll succeed.
  5) 推论条件句
  Since that is so, there is no more to say.
  Now that you are a grown­up, you must stop this behavior.
  9.时间句型
  1)一般时
  When I see him, I'll tell him.
  2)表同时
  You'll grow wiser as you grow older.
  Work while you work, play while you play.
  He worked, at the same time/ in the meantime/ meanwhile he listened to the music.
  3) 限制时
  Every/ Each time when I went to his house, he was out.
  By the time that we got there, he was out.
  4) 交替时
  Sometimes he sings, sometimes he dances.
  At one time the baby cries, at another it talks.
  5) 先时
  I stopped him before he began to talk with me.
  6) 后时
  I'll tell you after I finish it.
  7) 紧接时
  As soon as I see him, I'll tell him.
  Once you begin, you must continue.
  The (very) moment/instant (that) I saw him, I recognized him.
  On hearing the news, she bust into tears.
  Hardly had I seen the light, when I heard a loud thundering.
  8) 延续时
  I haven't seen him since I came here.
  A friend is never known till/ until a man has need.
  10.地点句型
  1)一般地点
  Where have you been?
  Where there is a will, there is a way.
  2) 方位
  Hebei lies in the east of China.
  Japan is/ lies to the east of China.
  The house faces (to) the south.
  He is sitting in the front of the classroom.
  He is standing in front of/ before me.
  He is sitting at the back of/ behind me.
  He is sitting at the back of/ at the rear of the classroom.
  He is sitting next to/besides me.
  He is sitting close to/ near me.
  At the top of/On top of the shelf, there are some books.
  He is sitting on the left/ right.
  The mountain you see to the right is the Purple Mountain.
  11.原因句型
  He didn't go to school because he was ill.
  Since we are all here, let's begin our meeting.
  It might rain yesterday, for the ground was wet.
  Now (that) we have finished the work, we can go home.
  I am glad to meet you.
  I am sorry that I hear you have been ill.
  I owe you a lot of thanks for your kindness to me in all these years.
  That is why he failed to come.
  He didn't come because of/ on account of the weather.
  He went out of curiosity.
  I succeeded thanks to his help.
  This failure is due to the fact they lack experience.
  Owing to our joint efforts, the task was fulfilled.
  For what reason did you choose this?
  What's the point of asking him to do that?
  How come you never told me about it?
  What with the wind and what with the rain, our walk was spoiled.
  12.目的句型
  He stopped aside so that she could go in.
  He sits in the front in order that he can see words on the screen clearly.
  He gets up early so as to/ in order to have time to do exercises.
  He repeated it for fear that there should be any mistake.
  13.结果句型
  It was very cold, so that the river froze.
  They cost a lot of money, so/ therefore we use them carefully.
  He is such a good man that every one likes him.
  He ran so fast that no one could catch him.
  He hurried to the house only to find that it was empty.
  I was caught in the rain. As a result, I had a bad cold.
  14.程度句型
  How often do you write to your parents?
  How long do you stay at home?
  It is so beautiful that we all love it.
  Maybe the task is too much for you.
  He is too excited to speak.
  He is not old enough to know this.
  The letter must be sent as soon as possible.
  You must work as hard as you can.
  As far as I know, I can speak only English.
  15.让步句型
  Though/ Although he is rich, (yet/ still) he doesn't show off.
  Young as he is, he know a lot of things.
  Even if/ though he succeeded, he was not proud.
  No matter what you say, I'll still try to do it.
  Keep calm, whatever/ no matter what happens.
  In spite of this, we must go ahead with our plans.
  Regardless of/ In spite of/ Despite all the difficulties, we'll fight it out to the end.
  16.转折句型
  I searched everywhere but could not find him.
  You may go, only return quickly.
  He is seriously ill, still there is hope of his recovery.
  It looked like rain, however it was clear in the afternoon.
  He is still young, yet he is high up in the position.
  He didn't tell me the truth, I know it, though.
  17.省略句
  I think/ say/ suppose/ expect/ believe/ hope so.
  Why not come earlier next time?

  二、英语阅读理解及书面表达必备词组
  above all            首先,尤其重要的,最重要的
  by accident   偶然,无意中
  be active in   对(于)……很积极
  add up to  合计为
  admit one's mistake  承认错误
  take/follow one's advice  接受某人的建议
  give advice on  就……提出建议
  advice sb. to do sth.  建议某人做某事
  the day after tomorrow  后天
  after all  毕竟;终究
  against one's will  违心
  at the age of  在……岁时
  achieve one's aim  实现目标
  in the air  在空中;悬而未决
  in the open air  在户外,在露天里
  at the airport  在机场
  the fire alarm  火警
  be filled with anger  满腔怒火
  be angry at sth.  因某人之言行而生气
  be angry with sb.  生某人的气
  make an announcement  通知
  one after another  相继地,按顺序地
  one another  相互,彼此(三者或三者以上之间)
  each other  相互(指两者之间)
  give no answer  没有回答
  be anxious about  为……而担心
  be anxious to do sth.  急于做某事
  live apart  分开住
  apart from  除了
  make/offer an apology to sb.for sth.  因某事向某人认错或道歉
  argue with sb. about sth.  与某人争论某事
  lay sth. aside  放在一边
  ask sb. for advice/help  请某人指点/帮助
  be astonished at sth.  惊讶于……
  at one time  以前,曾经
  pay attention to  注意
  take a correct attitude towards sth.  对……抱正确的态度
  attract one's attention  引起(注意,兴趣等)
  lie/swim on one's back  仰卧/仰泳
  a bad cold  重感冒
  two pieces of baggage  两件行李
  keep/lose one's balance  保持/失去平衡
  at the ball  在舞会上
  have/take a cold bath  洗冷水澡
  be killed in battle  阵亡
  on the beach  在海滩
  make the bed  整理床铺
  begin with  以……开始
  at the beginning of  在……起始,开始
  from beginning to end  自始至终
  come into being  形成……局面;产生
  a safety belt  安全带
  Second thoughts are best.  三思而后行
  do/try one's best  尽力,尽最大的努力
  make the best of  尽量利用,善用
  all the best  一切顺利,万事如意
  in bold  黑体的,粗体的
  be born in a peasant's family  出身于农民家庭
  make a bow  鞠躬
  use one's brains  动动脑子
  break the record  打破纪录
  take a deep breath  深吸一口气
  hold one's breath  屏息;憋住气
  out of breath  上气不接下气
  brush one's teeth  刷牙
  burst into tears  突然哭起来
  a burst of laughter  突然一阵大笑
  but for  要不是
  a call for help  呼救声
  keep calm  保持镇静(别慌)
  keep quiet  保持安静(别吵)
  keep still  保持不动(别动)
  keep silent  保持沉默(别说话)
  a summer camp  夏令营
  go camping  去野营
  cannot help doing  情不自禁……
  play cards  打牌
  take care of   照顾,保管
  medical care  医疗护理
  in that case  假若那样的话
  in case  以防万一
  rain cats and dogs  下倾盆大雨
  catch up with  赶上(或超过)
  by chance  偶然
  free of charge  免费
  in charge  主管,在掌管之下
  in the charge of  由……负责
  take charge  掌管,负责
  cheer up  高兴起来
  in one's childhood  童年时
  make a choice  挑选,选择
  at Christmas  圣诞节时
  go to church  去做礼拜
  cigarette end  烟头
  give sb. a clap  为……鼓掌
  get close to  接近
  a table cloth  一块桌布
  a suit of clothes  一套衣服
  children's clothing  童装
  collect stamps  集邮
  come about  产生,发生
  come across  (偶然)遇见或发现
  come up  走过来;长出,发芽,上升;抬头
  in common  共同,共有
  compete in a contest  参加比赛
  give a concert   举办音乐会
  on condition that  条件是
  congratulate sb. on sth.  祝贺某人
  on the contrary  相反地
  out of control  失控
  have a conversation with sb.  与……谈话;交谈
  in/during the course of  在……期间/过程中
  be covered with  被……覆盖
  be cross with sb. at sth.  因某事和某人发脾气
  cross out  划掉
  be cruel to sb.  对……残忍
  cubic meter   立方米
  be curious about sth.  对……感到好奇
  do great damage to   对……造成巨大损害
  in danger  处境危险
  out of date  过时
  the other day  在不久前,前几天
  be deaf to sth.  对……充耳不闻
  deal with  对付,应付
  in debt  负债
  out of debt  还清债务
  make a decision  作出决定
  do good deeds  做好事
  do the deed  付诸行动,生效
  deep into the night  直到深夜
  deep in thought  沉思
  deep into the night  深夜
  without delay  毫不耽搁,立刻
  delay doing sth.  迟迟未做某事
  deliver a speech  发表(演说等)
  meet the demands  满足要求
  foreign language department  外语系
  department store  百货商店
  beyond description  难以形容
  be determined to do sth.  决心做某事
  with the development of industry  随着工业的发展
  devote oneself to  献身于,致力于
  be in danger of dying out  处于灭亡的危险中
  make no difference  没作用,没影响
  have difficulty in doing sth.  做……有困难,难以……
  be invited to dinner  应邀赴宴
  in all directions  向四面八方
  make a new discovery  做出新的发现
  under discussion  正在讨论中
  wash dishes  洗盘子
  in the distance  在远方,在远处
  be distant toward sb.  对……冷淡
  do good to   对……有益
  do wrong  做坏事,犯罪
  from door to door  挨门挨户
  next door  隔壁的
  go downstairs  下楼
  go downtown  到市区去
  drag one's feet  缓慢前进,拖延
  draw tears from sb.  催人泪下
  dream of doing sth.  渴望做某事
  drill a hole in the wall  在墙上钻孔
  drive off  赶走
  drive sb. mad  使某人发狂
  earn money  挣钱
  earn one's living   谋生
  on earth  究竟
  take it easy  别着急,别紧张,放松些
  have a great effect on   对……有很大影响
  make efforts to do sth.  努力做某事
  encourage sb. to do sth.  鼓励某人做某事
  make ends meet  量入为出;使收支相抵
  a happy ending  美满的结局
  English­speaking countries  说英语的国家
  enter oneself for a contest  报名比赛
  the entrance to the theater  剧场的入口
  on New Year's Eve  在除夕
  even if/even though  虽然,即使
  current events  时事
  have/take an examination  参加考试
  carry out a medical examination  进行体格检查
  pass an examination  考试及格
  set an example to sb.  为……树立榜样
  do morning exercises  做早操
  come into existence  产生,成立
  carry/do/make an experiment  做实验
  make an explanation   作解释,说明
  make a face  做鬼脸,装怪相
  as a matter of fact  事实上
  fail to do sth.  未能……
  fall behind  落后,掉队
  be familiar with sth.  对……熟悉
  be famous for   因……而闻名
  be famous as  作为……而闻名
  feel one's pulse  摸某人的脉
  feel like doing sth.  觉得想做……
  hurt one's feelings  伤害某人的感情
  the Spring Festival  春节
  have a high fever  发高烧

  the field of science  科学领域
  in one's fifties  五十多岁时
  a key figure  关键人物
  fill in the form  填写表格
  in a flash  刹那间
  a big / great flood  一场大洪水
  sweep the floor  扫地
  on the third floor  在三层
  a building of three storeys  三层楼的建筑
  be in flowers  正在开花
  fly a kite  放风筝
  in a fog  糊里糊涂
  make a fool of sb.  欺骗,愚弄某人
  at the foot of the mountain  在山脚下
  the air force  空军
  by force  靠武力,强行
  with great force  用很大力气
  foreign trade  对外贸易
  form a good habit  养成好习惯
  try one's fortune  碰碰运气
  in fours  每四个一组(一批);四个四个地
  a frequent visitor  常客
  a fresh hand  新手
  make friends with  同……交朋友
  from then on   那时起
  from time to time  不时地,时常
  No pains, no gains.  一份耕耘,一份收获。
  play games  做游戏
  generation gap  代沟
  get down to sth.  开始认真(做某事)
  get into trouble  陷入麻烦
  have a gift for music  有音乐天分
  give out  用尽,耗尽,筋疲力尽
  take a glance at   朝……看了一眼
  glare at  向人瞪眼,怒目而视
  go out  (灯,火)熄灭
  go over the lesson  复习功课
  score a goal  进了一个球
  make mistakes in grammar  犯语法错误
  grasp one's meaning  懂某人的意思
  keep off the grass  勿踏草地
  get into the habit of  养成……的习惯
  by hand  用手
  hand out  分发
  on the one hand...on the other hand  一方面……另一方面……
  a handful of  少量的
  live a happy life  过幸福生活
  do harm to   损害,伤害
  a good harvest  一个好收成
  keep one's head  保持镇静
  in good health  身体好
  learn / know sth. by heart  记住某事
  keep a tight hold on sth.  紧握某物
  catch / take / get hold of   握住;抓住
  hold one's head high  趾高气扬
  the summer holidays  暑假
  on holiday  休假
  in honour of   为(向)……表示敬意;为了纪念……
  have high hope for sb.  对某人抱很大希望
  in the hope of doing sth.  怀着……的希望
  be in hospital  住院
  an hour or so  大约一小时
  go hungry  挨饿
  go hunting  打猎
  in a hurry  匆匆忙忙
  have no idea  不知道
  if only  但愿,要是……就好了
  make a good impression on sb.  给某人留下好印象
  inch one's way forward  慢慢前进
  A friend in need is a friend indeed.  患难之交才是真朋友。
  inform sb. of sth.  告诉某人某事
  insist on doing   坚持要做
  inspect a factory  视察工厂
  an inspiring speech  激动人心的演讲
  in instant need of help  急需帮助
  interrupt a conversation  打断谈话
  a letter of introduction  介绍信
  receive an invitation  收到请帖
  a letter of invitation  邀请信
  tell a joke  讲笑话
  play a joke with sb.  和某人开玩笑
  make a journey  旅行
  to one's joy  使某人高兴的是
  Don't judge a man by his looks.  不可以貌取人。
  a junior high school  初中
  just then  正在那时
  keep in touch with   与……保持联系
  keep out of  使……不进入……
  the key to success  成功的秘诀
  kick the door  踢门
  kick off one's shoes  踢掉鞋子
  go down / fall on one's knees  跪下
  knock at the door  敲门
  at the latest  最迟,至迟
  sooner or later  迟早
  burst into laughter   哈哈大笑起来
  break / obey the law  违(守)法
  make a law  制定一条法律
  lay the table  摆设餐具(准备吃饭)
  lead a simple life  过着简朴的生活
  leave out  忽略,遗漏
  attend a lecture on   听关于……的讲座
  teach sb. a lesson  给某人一个教训
  take a lesson from  从……中吸取教训
  let out a cry of surprise  惊讶地叫了一声
  let out the news  透露消息
  a capital letter  大写字母
  lie on one's back / stomach  仰卧 /俯卧
  come back to life  复活,苏醒过来
  traffic lights  交通信号灯
  make a shopping list  列一张购物清单
  make a living  谋生,度日
  lose one's life  丧生,死;牺牲
  lose heart  泄气;灰心
  lose one's voice  失音
  lose a game  输一场
  Wish you good luck.  祝你好运。
  a washing machine  洗衣机
  be mad with joy  欣喜若狂
  send the parcel by mail  邮寄包裹
  make money  赚钱
  make friends  交朋友
  make progress  取得进步
  make use of  利用
  make up a story  编造故事
  make up for one's mistake  弥补某人的过失
  have good manners  有礼貌
  a trade mark  商标
  full marks  满分
  watch a basketball match  观看一场篮球比赛
  have a match  进行比赛
  May you success.  祝你成功。
  May Day  五一节
  by this means  通过这种方式
  by means of  用……方法,依靠
  by no means  决不
  make...to one's measure  按……尺寸做
  take a measure  采取措施
  measure one's height  量身高
  get a gold medal  获得金牌
  a medical team  医疗队
  medical examination  体检
  take / have some medicine  吃药
  meet the needs of  满足……的需要
  meet with a storm  遇到风暴
  go to a meeting  去开会
  have a meeting   开会
  hold a meeting  举行会议
  in memory of  为纪念
  have no mercy on sb.  对……一点儿也不怜悯
  without mercy   毫不容情地;残忍地
  at the mercy of  在……支配下;任由……摆布
  Merry Christmas!  圣诞快乐!
  take a message for sb.  给某人捎个信儿
  Mid­autumn Day  中秋节
  millions of  上百万的,许许多多的
  change one's mind  改变主意
  Mind the wet paint!  当心油漆未干。
  make up one's mind  下决心
  the minister of foreign affairs  外交部长
  miss an opportunity  错过机会
  make a mistake  犯错误
  by mistake  由疏忽所致
  in modern times  现代
  small money  零钱
  have no money with sb.  某人身上没(带)钱
  make sb. monitor  选某人为班长
  on the early morning  某一天清早
  at the top of the mountain  在山顶上
  join the navy  参加海军
  if necessary  如果有必要的话
  in need of help  需要帮助
  take on a new look  呈现一片新面貌
  hit sb. on the nose  打某人的鼻子
  make / take notes  做笔记
  have nothing to do with  与……无关
  put up a notice  张贴通知
  pay no notice to sb.  对某人毫不在意
  be in operation  运转着,实施中
  place an order for sth.  订购某物
  out of work  失业了
  a pair of glasses  一副眼镜
  the Summer Palace  颐和园
  No parking here!  此处禁止停车!
  take an active part in  在……方面起积极作用
  in the past few days  在过去的几天里
  be patient with sb.  对某人有耐心
  Practice makes perfect.  熟能生巧。
  put on performances  演出,表演
  in person  亲自,当面
  take a photo of sb.  给某人照相
  play the piano  弹钢琴
  pick flowers  摘花
  pick up a wallet  捡钱包
  go out for a picnic  去野餐
  a pile of books  一堆书
  have / take pity on sb.  可怜某人(因同情而帮助某人)
  out of pity  出于同情
  in place of  代替
  take one's place  坐某人的座位,代替某人的职务
  take place  举行,发生
  take the place of  代替,代理
  make a plan  订计划
  play cards  玩牌
  play a joke on sb.  开某人的玩笑
  play with sb.  与……一起玩
  on the playground  在操场上
  be pleased with  对……感到满意
  take pleasure in doing sth.  喜欢做某事
  live in plenty  生活富裕
  on the point of  正要……的时候
  be polite to sb.  对某人有礼貌
  be popular with sb.  受某人喜爱
  take possession of  占有,拥有
  power station  发电站
  take power  当权,执政
  praise sb. for sth.  因为某事赞扬某人
  in praise of  赞扬
  be present at a meeting  出席会议
  at present  眼下
  exchange presents  互赠礼物
  under pressure  在压力下
  prevent sb. from doing   防止某人做某事
  at the price of  以……为代价
  at any price  无论花多少代价(不惜任何代价)
  take pride in  以……为自豪;对……感到得意
  primary school  小学
  go to prison  入狱,被监禁
  be in prison  在狱中服刑
  throw / put sb. into prison  将某人送进监狱
  escape from prison  越狱
  solve the problem  解决问题
  answer the question  回答问题
  keep one's promise  遵守诺言
  make a promise  答应,许下诺言
  be proud of  以……自豪
  provide food and clothes for one's family  养家糊口
  public affairs  公共事务
  public opinion  舆论
  in public  当众,公开
  publishing house  出版社
  on purpose  故意地
  push aside  把……推到一边
  push over  推倒,(风)刮倒
  put off  拖延,推迟
  out of the question  不可能
  a relay race  接力赛
  on the radio  通过无线电广播
  in rags  衣衫褴褛,穿破衣服
  at the railway station  在火车站
  light / heavy rain  小(大)雨
  a ray of hope  一线希望
  reach for sth.  伸手去拿
  out of one's reach  够不着
  be ready to do  乐意干某事
  in reality  事实上
  realize one's hope  实现希望
  for this reason  为此,为此理由
  reception desk  接待处
  refer to  参考;谈到
  remain in one's memory  留在某人的记忆中
  remind sb. to do sth.  提醒某人做某事
  remind sb. of sth.  使某人想起
  by request  应……请求
  as a result  因此,结果
  be rich in  盛产;有大量的……
  get rid of  除掉
  rob sb. of sth.  抢走某人某物
  play an important role  起重要作用
  play the role of  扮演……的角色
  make room for  给……腾出地方
  be rude to sb.  对某人无礼
  run out of  用完
  rush hour  高峰时间,拥挤时间
  satisfy one's needs  满足某人的需要
  save one's strength   节省体力
  that is to say  也就是说
  scold sb. for sth.  为某事责备某人
  take one's seat  就座,坐下
  keep sth. a secret  不让人知道某事,保密
  seize a thief by the collar  抓住小偷的衣领
  shake hands with sb.  与某人握手
  shop assistant  店员;营业员
  show sb. out / in   领某人出去/进来
  show off  炫耀
  on the other side of  对岸;在……另一面
  take the side of  支持某人(方)
  take sides in  站在……一边
  lose sight of  看不见
  catch sight out  看到,发现
  out of sight   看不见
  in silence   静静地
  be similar to  和……类似的
  single ticket  单程票
  take the size of  量……的大小(尺寸)
  slip a note into one's hand  偷偷塞给某人一张纸条
  slip on the snow  在雪地上滑倒
  smooth away difficulties  克服困难
  or so  大约
  have something to do with  与……有关系
  the national song  国歌
  speak out  大胆地说,清楚并响亮地说
  make a speech  发言,演讲
  at a speed of  以……的速度
  square kilometers  平方公里
  stand for  代表,象征
  starve to death  饿死
  in a good state  处于良好状态
  step by step  逐步地,一步一步地
  stick to one's word / promise  遵守诺言
  lie on one's stomach  趴在地上
  a house of four storeys  四层楼的住宅
  be caught in the storm  赶上风暴
  be strict with sb. in sth.  对……要求严格
  strike a match  擦火柴
  struggle to one's feet  挣扎着起来
  make a study of  仔细研究
  all of a sudden  突然,冷不防
  supply sb. with sth.  向某人供应/提供
  to one's surprise  使某人惊奇的是
  sweat off one's face  擦脸上的汗
  sit down to table  坐下吃饭
  pay one's taxes  纳税
  make tea  沏茶
  through a telescope  用望远镜
  tell a story  讲故事
  tell one from the other  辨别,分清
  take one's temperature  量体温
  tens of thousands of  数以万计
  be terrified at   被……吓了一跳
  be thankful to sb. for sth.  因某事感谢某人
  throw away  扔掉
  throw up  吐出(食物),呕吐
  in no time  立刻,很快
  traffic jam  交通堵塞
  play a trick on sb.  跟某人开玩笑,欺骗某人
  be in trouble  处于困境(苦恼)中
  a pair of trousers  一条裤子
  attend university  上大学
  pay a visit to sb.  拜访某人
  at the top of one's voice  高声地(喊)
  at war  在交战
  wear out  穿旧;使筋疲力尽
  pull out the weeds  拔草
  be dressed in white  穿着白色衣服
  as a whole  通盘,作为整体
  on the whole  总的来说
  Where there is a will, there is a way.  有志者事竟成。
  be willing to do sth.  乐意做某事
  wipe off the dust  擦掉灰尘
  make wonders  创造奇迹
  no wonder  不足为奇;难怪
  get in a word  插话
  have a word with sb.  和某人说句话
  in a word  总之,简言之

  第四章 应试答题技巧及评分标准
  一、六大题型解题指导
  (一)听力
  按基本技巧而言,听力训练有3类:listening for detail(细节辨识),listening for main ideas(中心思想辨识),listening between the line(引申及联想)。从能力的层次来讲,也有3个档次:Identification(辨识能力),Retention(记忆能力),Deduction(推导能力)。
  高考听力题,不管形式如何,都是在检查考生的技巧和技能。因此在学习中,不必一开始就从模拟试卷着手,而应当参与听力基本训练并从中总结规律。
  听力训练须注意的几个具体问题:
  1.泛听和精听相结合
  在听力训练中,既要能准确无误地听出某些重要的数据、年代、人名、地名及事实,又要兼顾把握大意。
  2.听中速记
  听力要养成抢记内容的能力,如人名、地名、时间、数字。速记一般可用key words形式。
  3.听前认真准备并快读问题要求,做到有的放矢。
  4.注意重复的词语。这些词通常会给你一些线索,还会帮你回忆起你在题目中听过的人名和事物等名称。
  5.注意各个选项中的主要区别。这些不同之处将会帮你确定这道题中哪些是你要听的关键,即关键词。
  6.克服犹豫不决的毛病,对自己有把握的试题应快速作答,对无把握的也要在所听信息的基础上排除错误选项,进行优化处理。不会作答的,立即暂时搁置,准备听新的题目。
  7.目前高考听力测试中短文理解大部分是记叙文或讲话稿,所以听录音时重在听懂每句话的意思和内涵,注意捕捉文中所涉及的人物(who)、事件(what)、时间(when)、地点(where)、原因(why)、方式(how)、程度(how long,how soon,how much)、数字(how many,how much)、选择(which)等,以便检查答案。
  8.注意听短文的首句和首段。文章的首句和首段,往往是对短文内容的概括,如讲话目的、主要内容、作者、论点、故事发生的时间、地点及事由等。
  9.不管听什么材料,注意力一定要集中在对整体内容的理解上,千万不能只停留在个别单词或单句上,听不清时马上放弃,不要强迫自己听清每一个词,而要把重点放在听关键词即实词上,一边听一边把要点及回答问题的关键词记下来。
  10.保持良好的心态。千万不要因为某些地方听不懂而心烦意乱,纠缠不休,一定要平静地听下去。否则会导致既丢“芝麻”,又丢“西瓜”的被动局面。
  (二)单项填空
  单项填空按其类别分有以下四大类,即:语法题、习语及惯用法搭配题、词语辨析题和情景交际题。
  一般来说,在做单项填空时要注意读懂题干的意思,弄清命题者要考查我们哪些方面的知识,切忌不认真读题干就盲目地拿起来选;其次要注意做题方法,要特别注意空格前后词与词之间的关系及要填的空在题干中的作用,然后认真分析,对比所供四个选项的区别与联系,逐一比较排斥;最后,注意做完后要认真复查核对,将所选的一项放到题干中再去检验,看意思、语法和习惯搭配上是否有疏忽,发现错误及时更正。下面介绍几种较为常见的方法:
  1.意群分析法
  所谓意群,就是句子中根据句法结构和逻辑关系必须停顿的若干部分。意群划分正确与否直接影响对句子的理解,进而影响答题。划分意群时首先要保证语法和句子结构的正确、规范,在此基础上再考虑意思是否完整通顺。如:
  Whom was it up to ________the matter?
  A. decide  B. to decide  C. deciding  D. decided
  答案B。这里有“it is up to sb. to do sth.”这样一个句型,本句的意群应该这样来划分Whom/was it up to/to decide the matter?如果不能正确划分意群,则很可能会想当然地误选为A。
  2.排同法
  由于单项填空题只有一个正确答案,因此,如有两项在意义上和用法上作用相同,则可以肯定这两个选项都不能作为正确答案,这样也就缩小了选择范围。如:
  What he did suggested that he ________little education.
  A. receive  B. received
  C. should receive  D. receives
  题干中的suggest若作“建议”讲,则A、C两个选项均为正确答案,所以这个假设不能成立。实际上这里的suggest只能作“暗示”解释,答案应该是B。
  3.排除法
  在通读全题,弄清题意,分析空格,确定考查知识的前提下,采用此法对选项逐个分析推断,最后得出最佳答案。如:
  —Would you like some tea?
  —________.
  A. Of course not  B. No, thanks
  C. It doesn't matter  D. Never mind
  上句是客气地征询对方是否需要喝茶,回答不能太生硬,故A可排除,选项C、D都是回答道歉用语,也可排除,因此答案只能是B。
  4.还原法
  在解答疑问句、倒装句和复合句、强调句型等时,这是最常用的方法之一。这些句子常常是某些结构被移至其他位置,给理解造成困难,因此只要将原来的结构还原便一目了然。
  (三)完形填空
  作答完形填空题,除了使用比较、推理、判断、逻辑等方法或手段以外,还可借助事实先决、事实后决、同比排除、反比否定等方法。
  1.事实先决
  所谓“事实先决”是指在选项中同时出现符合文章或接近事实的情形,考生面对此类情形可用“事实先决”的方法解题,即按逻辑顺序对事实加以梳理和排序,找出第一事实或首要事实,问题才有可能迎刃而解。
  例如: And there on a well­made bed sat Amy, my new ______, dressed neatly.
  A. roommate  B. classmate  C. neighbor  D. companion
  题解:选A. roommate指“同住宿舍一室的人”。作者并非在教室等处首次遇到Amy,故排除掉选项B. classmate;也并非在宿舍楼道等处首次遇到Amy,故排除掉选项C. neighbor,至于选项D. companion,在逻辑顺序上,应先有 classmate,后有companion。
  2.事实后决
  所谓“事实后决”是指在选项中出现悬而难决的情形,答案选项有可能是不曾知晓的表达,考生面对类似情形可用“事实后决”的方法解题,即过滤掉明显不合文意的选项,最后决定答案项。“事实后决”与过去常说到的解题方法“排除法”接近。
  Angela had to________out whether the students would like to do that.
  A. call  B. find  C. carry  D. point
  【答案】B
  题解:call out“出动”,carry out“执行”,point out“指出”,都与句意不符,find out “打听,弄清楚”,“Angela必须要弄清楚学生们是否喜欢这样做”符合句意。
  3.反比否定
  所谓“反比否定”是指从选项相反意思的假设入手去印证该选项正确与否。与使用“事实后决”的方法一样,“反比否定”常用在对选项较难作出判断,或对选项较难作出印证的情形中。
  She had never thought she was good enough at anything to ________much attention.
  A. avoid  B. focus  C. pay  D. attract
  【答案】D
  根据上句She had never thought she was good enough at anything...可知该句意思应该是“她知道自己不善于吸引别人的注意”,avoid“避免”,是指避免别人的注意,与本来含义相悖,focus“集中”也不符合句意,pay更是直接与attention构成短语表示“注意”,结构不完整,因此唯有attract在这可表示“引起他人关注”才符合本意。
  4.同比排除
  所谓“同比排除”是指选项设置有可能存在相同性与答案则只能具有唯一性这一矛盾入手,排除意同或类别同的选项。此一命题现象在完形填空中多有出现。
  Being alone in outer space can be frightening. That is one reason why astronauts on solo(单独的)space flight were given plenty of work to keep them ________.
  A.tired  B.asleep  C.conscious  D.busy
  【答案】D
  上句说一个人在太空中是可怕的,因此为了不让他们感到孤独就得让他们始终忙着做事。tired和asleep都属于一方面的事,人疲倦了自然会瞌睡,二者皆可排除,conscious“神志清醒的,有意识的”有严重的干扰,但似乎这有不让人昏迷的歧义,busy含义还是最符合要求。
  (四)阅读理解
  对大多数文章可先浏览文章了解大致意思然后再认真看问题设计,最后细读文章寻找信息。具体要注意这几个主要方面:
  1.抓住文章首句
  文章中的头一句话往往是短文中关键的语句,即文章的主题句,是探察全文内容的窗口。了解首句含义,就可以顺着提供的主要线索去捕捉文章的关键词语,从而获得解决问题的答案。
  2.细察段首段尾
  每段首句和尾句,一般是表达文章中的主题和段落中心思想的,各段的段落大意往往概括在一个主题句中,其他句子只是对主题句的补充、说明、解释或引申。因此,开始阅读时,视域内首先要搜索目标,即段落中的主题句。英语短文的主题句一般都在段落末尾或开头。
  3.进行合理推断
  对文章有了详细、全面了解之后,就要按照文章要求,上下文的逻辑关系,作出推理判断。阅读理解涉及词汇、语法、句型、段落结构、文化背景等各方面因素。答题时要领会句子之间的逻辑关系,特别是相邻句子之间的关系,这样有利于理解全文。表示逻辑关系的标志词是连接词、副词、代词、介词、关系词、插入语,通读时应特别注意。如:if, because, though, as, which, it, and, but, however, therefore, so, for, example, I'm afraid, so that, so...that等词语。它们在上下文中具有条件、原因、让步,指代、递进、对比、列举、结果、目的、承上启下等作用,分布在文章中的各个位置,起着指示路灯的作用,正确理解并掌握这些词汇的作用,对阅读理解短文是大有好处的。
  (五)短文改错
  1.先将文章通读一遍,弄清文章大意。
  2.判断对错不但要从本行、本句考虑,还要顾及全文。
  3.多词处别忘了抄完词后画斜线。
  4.缺词、错词别忘了在原文中做记号。
  5.十个题中以错词为主,多词少词仅两三个,没错的一般仅一个。
  6.留心逻辑推理的错误,尤其是动词方向、人称代词、肯定否定等。
  7.如感觉一行有两处错,应改正较有把握处。
  8.每行无论多词、缺词或错词,做题时只能动一个词。
  (六)书面表达
  1.用好原句,不另辟蹊径
  高考书面表达题中往往会给出开篇句或结尾句,我们只需用好这些已给信息即可。因为这些句子既给我们提供了信息,又从一定程度上规定了我们写作的文体。
  2.开门见山,不拖泥带水
  一个好的开头,可以在一定程度上反映出作者驾驭材料的能力,也可以让人耳目为之一新。写好开头,除了提纲挈领,准确达意,符合交际习惯外,还应注意做到开门见山。
  3.恰到好处,不狗尾续貂
  和开头一样,好的尾句也可以反映出作者总揽全文的能力,同时,它也应该是控制字数,画龙点睛之笔。好的尾句应该照应前文,总结全篇,干净利落,使全文结构紧凑。
  4.力避低级错误
  新标准中将“错误”的容忍范围界定在“尝试或尽力使用较复杂结构或较高级词汇所致”,可以说是较好地鼓励了考生尽力发挥自己的语言潜能。但是我们应尽可能地避免在写作时犯一些“低级”错误。
  5.提高表述层次
  新的评分标准中特别强调了“使用较复杂结构或较高级词汇”的能力,这就要求我们不能简单地平铺直叙,应该是在保证全面,力争准确的同时,提高表述的层次,写出丰富多彩的句子来,以表现自己“具备较强的语言运用能力”。
  具体说来可以注意以下几个方面:
  (1)注意句型多样化,使短文看起来生动;
  合理使用长短句,使文章错落有致;
  用好并列复合句,使文章流畅连贯;
  点缀特殊形式句,使文章清新悦目。
  (2)适当使用惯用法,使句子富有表现力。
  (3)用好各种替代词,避免罗嗦和重复。
  (4)借助非谓语动词,丰富形式与效果。
  二、书面表达各档次的划分及给分范围
  各档次的给分范围和要求


第五档
25~30分

完全完成了试题规定的任务。
—覆盖所有内容要点。
—应用了较多的语法结构和词汇。
—语法结构或词汇方面有些许错误,但是为尽力使用较复杂结构或较高级词汇所致;具备较强的语言运用能力。
—有效地使用了语句间的连接成分,使全文结构紧凑,完全达到了预期的写作目的。

第四档
19~24分

完全完成了试题规定的任务。
—虽漏掉一两个次重点,但覆盖所有主要内容。
—应用的语法结构和词汇能满足任务的要求。
—语法结构或词汇方面应用基本准确,些许错误主要是因尝试较复杂语法结构或词汇所致。
—应用简单的语句间连接成分,使全文结构紧凑,达到了预期的写作目的。

第三档
13~18分

基本完成了试题规定的任务。
—虽漏掉一些内容,但覆盖所有主要内容。
—应用的语法结构和词汇能满足任务的要求。
—有一些语法结构或词汇方面的错误,但不影响理解。
—应用简单的语句间连接成分,使全文内容连贯,整体而言,基本达到了预期的写作目的。

第二档
7~12分

未恰当完成试题规定的任务。
—漏掉或未描述清楚一些主要内容,写了一些无关内容。
—语法结构单调,词汇知识有限。
—有一些语法结构或词汇方面的错误,影响了对写作内容的理解。
—较少使用语句间的连接成分,内容缺少连贯性,信息未能清楚地传达给读者。

第一档
1~6分

未完成试题规定的任务。
—明显遗漏主要内容,写了一些无关内容,原因可能是未理解试题要求。
—语法结构单调,词汇项目有限。
—较多语法结构或词汇方面的错误,影响对写作内容的理解。
—缺乏语句间的连接成分,内容不连贯信息未能传达给读者。

0分

未能传达给读者任何信息:内容太少,无法评判;写的内容均与所要求内容无关或所写内容无法看清。


  第五章 考前状态调整
  第一节 调整心态,突破“心理围城”
  一、考试一半是靠心态
  一年一度的高考,对广大考生是一次极其严峻的考验。它不仅是对考生的知识、智力、技能的考查,也是对考生情感、意志、体力的挑战。无论心理学的研究,还是高考的实践都表明,考生的应考心理如何,临场发挥的好坏,在很大程度上影响着高考的结果。中科院心理研究所王极盛教授对20个影响高考成功因素的研究结果表明,考试中心态排第1位。
  1.不良应考心理的外部表现
  “应考心理”作为一种心理现象,多数时候主要反映在思维活动中,但有时会在人的言行、神态中表现出来。比如在考试前感到紧张不安、焦虑失眠,学习效率下降,甚至食欲不振,精神体力都有极度疲惫的感觉;在考试中有人心情激动,难以平静,不能很快进入角色;有人碰到一些问题就惊慌失措、悲观失望,甚至想退场;有人感到头昏目眩,心慌烦躁,身心不适等等。这一切其实都是不良应考心理的外部表现。有一些医学工作者称这种现象叫考试综合症。据最近几年的实际观察,有以上这些现象的考生不是少数,而且占到相当的比例。现代科学研究证明:适度的压力,适当的紧张,可以提高人的工作和学习效率,无论是对人的身体健康,还是对人的心理锻炼都有益处。但是,如果压力过大,长期精神紧张,就会出现适得其反的效果,情绪不安、焦虑紧张、悲观失望等不良心理现象会直接影响到考生的临场发挥。
  2.应考心理对临场发挥的影响
  应考心理与临场发挥之间的关系是紧密联系不可分割的。应考心理的好坏,在相当程度上影响到临场发挥的好坏。应考心理越好的考生,一般来说,临场发挥就越好。反之,则越差。经常有这种现象:有的考生平时成绩并不怎么好,甚至较差,但是高考中却发挥得相当出色,甚至超水平发挥;而有的考生平时成绩还不差,但考试结果却令人失望。这样的例子比比皆是。究其原因,很重要的一个方面还是应考心理在作怪。可以这样说:应考心理与临场发挥之间存在着因果关系,“临场发挥”是对“应考心理”的最好检验。
  3.树立正确的考试观
  应该教育考生,使他们认识到:高考固然是一条成功之路,但并不是“唯一”的成功之路。金榜题名诚然可喜,但“榜上无名”也未必就是穷途末路。当今社会,正处在改革发展的时代,需要各方面人才。只要树立了远大的志向,正确的理想,并为之奋斗,就一定能有所作为。考生应树立正确的考试观,排除一切不利因素的干扰,正确对待高考。
  有一点非常重要,就是考生一定不能迷信,有的考生考前看到了乌鸦,就觉得自己完了,看到喜鹊则认定对自己是个好兆头。还有许多考生考前爱扔硬币来判定自己的成功几率。这些都是要不得的,只会扰乱你的情绪,打击你的自信。
  二、考试情绪的自我调适
  考生当听到入场铃声时,难免心理紧张,特别是第一天的第一科考试。所以提前准备很关键,首先是物质准备,而心理准备更为重要。考生一迈入考场,可能会出现突如其来的紧张。考前的知识储备和身心调适越充分,这种紧张发生的可能性越小。
  如果在考场上已经出现这种状况,这时再去懊悔是没有益处的,只能积极地采用一些调控措施消除这些情况带来的影响。
  1.突然慌乱
  有时,考生可能因为在作答时遇到了难题,或是遇到钢笔坏了之类的意外情况,或是冷不防从脑海里迸出“我要失败了”等消极的想法,便突然慌乱起来。这种情况发生后,可采取以下几种方法:第一种方法是放松,一旦出现突然慌乱的最初征兆,最好暂停作答,闭合双眼,轻轻地对自己说“放松”,重复六次,并注意体验全身松弛的感觉;也可以全身高度绷紧十秒钟,然后突然放松。第二种方法是深呼吸,在突然慌乱时,呼吸会变得急促,这时应该有意调节呼吸,在吸气时绵长、缓慢、深沉,呼气时也这样。第三个办法是中断思路,一旦产生容易引起慌乱的想法,可以果断地对自己说“停”,同时握紧一下拳头,这样能中断原来的思路。当自觉情况好转后,应迅速转入正常考试状态。
  2.瓶颈效应
  瓶颈效应是指在考试过程中,心里觉得似乎容易解决而一时又解决不了的心理现象。这时考生答题一会儿感到似乎已经茅塞顿开,一会儿又觉得毫无办法,欲行不能,欲罢不忍,时间不知不觉溜过去了。瓶颈效应常伴随突然慌乱发生,并加剧慌乱程度。遇到这种情况时,首先要保持镇静,注意放松,调整呼吸;然后,通过情境、结构联想,回忆与该问题有关的内容,发掘出有用的材料和线索。另外,还可以暂时放下当前的题目,先做别的题,过会儿再回头思考,说不定会从其他题目中得到启发而豁然开朗呢!
  3.身体疲劳
  高考时,连续数小时处于注意力高度集中、思想持续活跃、书写量较大的状态中,考生很容易产生身体疲劳现象。在高考前,考生要注意保证充足的睡眠、适度的锻炼和良好的营养,从而为高考储备足够的精力。在考试当中,要不时给自己一些调整状态的短暂间歇,伸展四肢和腰背,活动手腕和头颈,摇摇手指关节,这样,才不至于过分紧张或疲劳,维持良好的机能状态。有些考生在考试过程中感到手指非常紧张,严重时感到握笔和写字非常困难,这是手部疲劳的一种表现。出现这种情况时,先放下笔,活动活动手腕,手臂自然下垂轻轻地摇一摇;也可以双手交叉按压指关节,双手举至面部自上而下做干洗脸五至六次,手便会放松许多。
  4.作弊冲突
  高考,要求严格、组织严密,与每个考生的前途有着重大关系。由于社会不正之风的影响,以及个人准备不充分、成功欲望过强、道德水准较低等原因,有的考生在高考中还可能陷于作弊冲突之中。作弊是与社会道德相背离、与科学精神相对立、与考试规则相冲突的,应该坚决抵制。然而,高考关系重大,一分之差可能引起天壤之别,所以有些考生在高考中偶尔会萌发作弊念头。有了这种念头的考生应立即设法排除,以免影响考试。对于那些试图把意向变成行动的考生朋友,不要冒险做那些会令你窘迫,甚至断送你前程的傻事,因为监考老师和考场纪律都是严格无私的。
  第二节 考前一周整装待发
  一、决战前的部署至关重要
  1.一般来说,高考前几天复习,总的原则是回归教材,通过知识网络,把查漏补缺、解决前面复习中出现的问题放在第一位。没必要也不可能再把每一科详细地复习一遍。因此,最后七天的复习更应收缩到教材上来。通过看书上的目录、标题、重点等,一科一科地进行回忆,发现生疏的地方,及时重点补习一下,已经熟练掌握了的内容,可以一带而过。还可以看自己整理的提纲、图表、考卷,重温重要的公式、定理等。这七天的复习,就像运动员在比赛前的准备活动或适应性练习一样。通过这七天的收缩复习、强化记忆,可以进一步为高考打下坚实的知识基础。心理学界有一个普遍的共识,早起后半小时和晚睡前半小时,这两段时间是最佳的记忆时间,所以,这一个小时要充分利用。
  2.进入全真模拟状态。全真模拟复习要与高考时间程序表一致,这样才能在高考的那天,顺利进入状态。每天做一套卷子,这样在几天后真正拿到高考试卷时不会感到手生,能尽快找到感觉。
  3.要保持自己平时学习和生活的节奏,适当减小复习密度和难度,可以得到“退一步,进两步”的效果。保持大脑皮层的中度兴奋(既不过分放松也不过分紧张),要避免和他人进行无谓的辩论和争吵。可以适当地看电视、听音乐、做自己喜欢的事,不过最好别玩电脑,因为电脑游戏、网络容易令人沉迷。这样,就能在考试前夕,创造一个良好的心境。
  4.高质量的睡眠永远是最有效的休息方式。考前有的考生可能会因兴奋而失眠。所以,睡前不应喝咖啡、茶之类的刺激性饮料,也不应看紧张、扣人心弦的故事片。到了正常睡觉时间或是稍早一点(大可不必早早上床等着入睡),躺到床上,全身放松,争取迅速入睡。若一时睡不着,千万不能着急,不要责备自己或胡思乱想,只管保持平和心情,采取重复放松技术。其实只要全身非常放松,大脑不兴奋,完全可以获得身心的休息。
  “猫头鹰”式的考生如何应付上午的考试?有些考生习惯于夜间用功学习,夜越深精力越好;还有些考生为争取时间,拼命熬夜,以致养成习惯。这两种情况,都会使考生在白天,特别是上午精力不佳,但考试又都是在白天进行。为了解决这一矛盾,必须事先进行人体生物钟调整,逐步改变生活习惯,以适应考试的时间安排。调整生物钟,从临考前两周就要开始矫正作息时间,坚持晚上9点30分睡觉,早晨6点起床。开始时可能怎么也睡不着,不过没关系,睡不着就看书,但第二天早6点一定要起床。因为头天晚间没睡好,起床后昏昏沉沉。这时一定不可赖在床上,可以到附近公园、街道上跑跑步,边跑边背些单词。几天过后,就会慢慢适应早睡早起的习惯了。考前一周应按考试时间安排作息,早6点起床、运动、吃饭,8点钟准时开始复习,中间休息20分钟。最好按考试科目时间复习。这样经过一段适应训练,临场考试就不会有异常感觉了。
  5.在高考前一两天,考生应该熟悉考场。在通常情况下,一个学校的考生可能要到另一个学校去考试,所以,熟悉考场尤为重要。所要熟悉的内容有:所在考场离居住地点有多远;用什么方式抵达比较迅速和安全;在路上要花多少时间;自己在哪个教室;坐哪个座位;座位是靠近门窗还是贴近墙角;教室是向阳还是背阳;厕所及其他服务设施在哪儿;附近有无可以休息和饮食的地方,这些问题在准备时都应该弄清楚。否则,临到考试时由于没有准备,一些意外情况可能会让你陷入混乱和迷茫,影响注意力和思维的灵活性。譬如出发过晚,气喘吁吁地赶到考场再匆匆忙忙找自己的座位,这样会影响情绪,耽误做题时间;如果开始考试时才发现窗户透进的阳光直射你的座位,这时抱怨着急只会起消极作用。还有在教室门口附近就座的考生,易受到巡视员进出的影响。若对这些事情早有准备的话,就能把这些所引起的心理冲击减小到最低程度。熟悉考场,早作准备,会给考生带来信心和安全感。
  二、必要的物质准备是高考成功的先决条件
  1.备齐考试用品。考试前一两天,要仔细检查一下高考时必备的文化用品(如手表、钢笔、三角板、圆规、铅笔、橡皮等),如果用品不齐或有故障,一定要及时解决。高考的前一天晚上,临睡前要将包括准考证在内的所有必备品装在一个袋子里(最好是厚而透明的小塑料袋),放在容易看到的地方。每次考试出发前,一定要检查一下。这些看起来是小事,但小事弄不好,有时也会误大事。如每年高考都会有人忘记带准考证,从而无法进入考场,延误了考试时间,平添一番烦恼;有时,手表未及时更换电池,在考试中途手表停了,很长时间自己也未发现,造成考生不能合理地分配答题时间;还有的考生,只带了一支钢笔,答卷不久,钢笔又不下水了,也十分狼狈……。总之,高考也应像打仗一样,要“兵马未动,粮草先行”,不打无准备之仗。
  2.注意养精蓄锐。考生经过高中三年的学习,特别是最后的复习,目的就是迎接高考,接受国家的考核和选拔,可谓“养兵千日,用在一时”。所以,考前要注意“养精蓄锐”,注意饮食起居,预防突发感冒、腹泻等疾病,多补充一些优质蛋白质食品,如鸡蛋、瘦肉、肝、牛奶和豆制品等,多吃蔬菜和水果。这些食品营养丰富,有助于增强体力和记忆力。为了防止意外情况发生,考试前几天不要参加较为激烈、体能消耗过大的文体活动,同时不要到离家太远的地方。适当的放松和休息应是考前一周的主旋律。
  3.女生在高考前应充分估计,高考那几天是否是月经期。如果是,应和家长、医生商量一个妥帖的处理方法。尤其是平时月经期身体不适,有痛经或其他不良反应的考生更应该考虑周到一些,以免到时手足无措,影响考试。
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
回复

使用道具 举报

您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 立即注册

本版积分规则

Archiver|手机版|小黑屋|新都网 ( 京ICP备09058993号

GMT+8, 2017-12-18 09:22 , Processed in 0.078348 second(s), 9 queries , Wincache On.

Powered by Discuz! X3.2

© 2001-2013 Comsenz Inc.

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表