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2009年高考名师手记之:英语篇(省略句)

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发表于 2016-6-27 12:23:20 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  一。考纲要求
  按照考试大纲的要求,考生应掌握英语省略的一些基本原则,在行文中正确地使用省略。

  二。命题导向
  近年的高考试题主要考查定语从句、宾语从句、状语从句、简单句中和交际语境中的省略。

  三。复习要点
  1. 在并列句中,为了避免与第一个分句的相同内容重复,可采用省略谓语,而保留主语和表语或补足语等成分。例如:
  Some books are to be tasted, others (are) to be swallowed, and some few (are) to be chewed and digested。
  One of the sides of the board should be painted yellow, and the other white。
  在一些并列句中,由于前面已经出现了相同的主语,为了避免重复,后一个分句的主语也常常省略。例如:
  Coral is not a plant, but (it is) a variety of animal life。
  He came into the classroom, (he) sat down and (he) began to read。
  2. 在定语从句中,当先行词在句中作宾语时,可省略关系代词that/whom。例如:
  They talked about the things and people (that) they remembered。
  The doctor did everything (that) he could to save the patient.
  3. 宾语从句中的省略
  在含有动词“命令(order, command), 建议(suggest, propose),要求(request, demand, require),坚持(insist)希望(desire)”等的名词性从句中,谓语动词通常用should+动词原形,而且should可被省掉。例如:
  It is desired that this rule(should)be brought to the attention of the staff。
  They suggested that he (should) go on a summer camp。
  4. 在表示时间、条件、地点、让步、方式或比较的状语从句中,如果包含动词be,从句中的主语与主句相同,或者从句的主语为it,就常常把从句中的主语和谓语的一部分(动词be)省略掉,只保留连词+现在分词/过去分词/形容词。例如:
  ⑴ 时间状语从句
  Metals expand when (they are) heated and contract when (they are) cooled。
  While (he was) eating breakfast, he heard the doorbell ring
  ⑵ 条件状语从句
  Send the goods if (they are) ready。
  (3) 地点状语从句中
  Fill in the blanks with articles where (it is) necessary。
  (4) 让步状语从句中
  Though (he was) poor, he lived a happy life。
  (5) as, as if引导的方式状语从句中
  As (it was) scheduled, they met on the New Year’s Day at the city of Zhengzhou.
  He opened his lips as if (he was) to say something。
  (6) 比较状语从句中通常省略与前面相同的谓语部分。例如:
  She can hold her breath longer than I (can hold my breath)。
  He is not so busy as he was (busy) last year。
  (7)在表示虚拟条件的状语从句中,把if省略,而将had, were, should 时,句子采用倒装语序。例如:Had I known the news before hand, I would have told you。
  Should you need any help (=if you need any help), you can always phone me at the office。
  Were we to offer you the job, would you take it?
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发表于 2016-6-27 13:49:23 | 显示全部楼层

  5. 动词不定式的省略
  在上下文中,为了避免重复前面或后面出现的动词和动词短语,通常在一些包含有动词不定式的结构中,将动词不定式省略,只保留动词不定式符号to。在下面几种情况下只保留不定式符号to:
  (1)上文中出现了某一动词,下文中含有助动词或情态动词如be going to, used to, have to, ought to, be able to, be about to 等+动词原形结构,要省去动词原形,只保留不定式符号to。例如:
  I can’t stand as much as I used to。
  (2)在上文中出现了某一动词,下文中含有谓语动词如 want, decide, like, love, hope, wish, mean, refuse, try 等+不定式作宾语结构,要省去动词不定式,只保留不定式符号to。例如:
  Jack didn’t pass the driving test, but he still hope to。
  (3)上文中出现了某一动词,下文中含有动词如 ask, tell, order, advise, persuade, warn, wish, permit, allow 等+动词不定式做主补或宾补结构,要省去动词不定式,而保留不定式符号to。例如:Mary wanted to use your new bike, but I asked her not to。
  (4)在对话中,上句话出现过某一动词,答语中含有主语+系动词+形容词+动词不定式结构中,在形容词如happy, glad, eager, anxious, willing, ready, pleased, afraid 等后的动词不定式要省去动词原形,而保留不定式符号to。例如:—Will you come for a walk? —I’d love to。
  6 在交际英语中的答语中,往往只保留问句中所提问的部分。例如:
  —Why do you want the book so badly?
  —To study, sir。

  四。注意事项
  1. 在动词不定式省略时,尤其要注意以下两种情况:
  (1)复合句中的主句的主语部分含有实义动词do时,作表语的动词不定式常可省略动词不定式的符号to。例如:All I did was (to) give him a little push。
  (2) 在have no choice but to do sth。(别无选择只好做某事)句型中,动词不定式的符号to不能省略。而在其它情况下, 如果前面出现实义动词do的某种形式如do/did /to do等,后面的动词不定式常可省略动词不定式的符号to。例如:Then it has no choice but to lie down and sleep.
  (3) 当动词want, like用在连词when, if, what, as等连接的从句时,其后的to也可被省略。例如:I’ve decided to do what I like。
  (4) 在口语中,为了避免重复,常用to代替动词不定式,有时甚至可以省略to。例如:
  —Don’t make any mistakes in your homework, will you?
  —I'll try not to。
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发表于 2016-6-27 15:23:42 | 显示全部楼层

  五. 精典名题导解
  1. (2008安徽)—Have you got any particular plans for the coming holiday?
  —Yes, _______, I’m going to visit some homes for the old in the city。
  A. If ever B. If busy C. If anything D. If possible
  考点解析:状语从句If it is possible和if it is necessary通常用省略为:If possible,If necessary, 因此最佳答案为D。
  2.(2008福建) —Who should be responsible for the accident?
  —The boss, not the workers. They just carried out the order _____。
  A. as told B. as are told C. as telling D. as they told
  考点解析:当状语从句的主语与主句的主语相同时,从句可省略主语与助动词,保留“连词+现在分词、过去分词、形容词”等形式。句意为:他们只是按照老板的吩咐做事。状语从句as they were told 省略为as told,因此最佳答案为A。
  3. (2009年郑州市毕业班第二次质量预测) You can go to the party with us if you 。
  A.want to B.want to do C.want it D.want to go
  考点解析:句意为:“如果你想和我们一起参加派对,你就去吧”。前句出现了动词短语:go to the party with us, 因此在if引导的状语从句中该动词不定式短语被省略,只保留动词不定式的符号to, 因此最佳答案为A。
  4. (2009年郑州市毕业班第一次质量预测) It must be somebody’s, but I don’t know 。
  A.who B.which C.whose D.whom
  考点解析:句意为“这肯定是某人的,但是我不知道是谁的”,上句中的somebody’s 暗示应选“whose”, 其实是宾语从句whose (it is)的省略。因此最佳答案为C。
  5. (北京市东城区高中示范校2009届高三质量检测) In the earthquake, parents were willing to do they could their children。
  A.whatever; save B.whatever; to save
  C.what; saving D.what; to save
  考点解析:题干中第一空可填whatever,因could后省略了动词do,第二空为动词不定式作目的状语,应填to save,因此最佳答案为A。
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