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高考英语二轮复习知识点:动词和动词词组

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发表于 2016-6-27 12:24:53 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
  动词和动词短语是历年高考单项填空考查的核心热点,每年必考,一般占1—2道题。设题时往往都是给出四个不同的动词或动词短语(有时是同一动词与不同介词或副词的搭配)来测试考生在具体语境中对动词及动词短语意义的理解和实际运用能力。动词及动词短语的考查点多面广,综合性强,备受命题者青睐。
  考点一、考查动词词义辨析
  这类试题的四个选项是在结构上都很相近的动词。要做好这类试题,必须明确各个动词的词义和用法,然后根据题意需要选用合适的动词。
  例Recently, these companies have _______ some workers because of the drop in economy.
  A. hired B. dismissed
  C. refused D. employed
  【解析】四个选项都是及物动词,且都可以与worker构成动宾关系,但从题干中的the drop in ?economy可知,只有B项符合题意。
  考点二、 考查近义动词辨析
  这类试题的四个选项无论在意义上还是在结构上都是很相近的动词。面对这类试题,必须要从四个动词的语义差别、用法特点等入手才能选出符合题意的动词。
  例When his brother was to cross the street, he was knocked down by a truck and badly _______。
  A. injured B damaged
  C. harmed D. destroyed
  【解析】 这四个动词都有“伤害,损害”之意,但具体用法不同。injure指在意外事故中“受伤”;damage主要指对于物体的不彻底的破坏,这种破坏或因自然灾害所致,或因人为造成,常含可以修复之意;harm用于肉体或精神上的伤害,有时可指引起不安或不便;destroy表示毁坏十分彻底,常含无法修复再用之意。从题意来看,答案为A。
  考点三、考查动词与其宾语的固定搭配
  英语中有许多动词与其宾语有固定的搭配和习惯用法。碰到这类试题时,解答的关键是弄清题意,然后根据题意选择符合固定搭配或习惯用法的动词。
  例 With modern equipment, many mysteries have _______ to light in recent years.
  A. bought B. come
  C.
  thrown D. appeared
  【解析】 题意为“由于有现代化的设备,近年来许多谜团被揭开”。“揭露,将……曝光”是come to light,故答案为B。
  考点四、考查同根动词短语的辨析
  这类试题的四个选项都是由同一个动词加不同的介词或副词构成。从历年高考试题来看,那些搭配能力强、语义丰富的常用动词短语是命题的重点对象。解答这类试题时,一定要在理解语境的基础上,从语义逻辑、固定搭配、前后关系等角度去确定答案。
  例How I wish that I could _______ my ideas in simple and wonderful English when chatting on the net.
  A. set out B. set off
  C. set in D. set up
  【解析】分析题意为“我多么希望在网上聊天时能用简单而又漂亮的英语表达我的思想啊”。由题意可知,空缺处应该是“表达;解释”之意,而四个选项中只有set out有此意,故答案为A。
  考点五、考查同根介词或副词的动词短语的辨析
  这类试题的四个选项是由不同的动词加相同的介词或副词构成。解答这类试题的关键首先还是弄清题意,然后选出符合题意和句子结构需要的动词短语。
  例When I was twenty, I had to _______ before graduation and work in a clothes shop to help support my family. A. drop out B. come out
  C. leave out D. stay out
  【解析】分析题意为“在20岁时,我不得不辍学到一家服装店工作以帮助养活我的家人。”从题意可知,空缺处应该是“辍学”之意,四个选项中,只有A项的drop out有此意,故答案为A。
  例Take care during the holidays! Drinking too much can _______ heart disease and cause high blood pressure.
  A. contribute to B. relate to
  C. attend to D. devote to
  【解析】分析题意为“节日期间要当心!喝酒太多会导致心脏病和引起高血压。”由题意可知,空缺处应该是“导致”之意,四个选项中,只有A项contribute to有此意,故答案为A。
  考点六、考查不同动词构成的动词短语的辨析
  这类试题的四个选项是由四个不同的动词构成的动词短语。解答这类试题的关键是根据题干意思,选出符合题意的动词短语。
  例The society today offers the young generation more chances to _______ their talent and skills.(2009合肥质检)
  A. give out B. take in
  C. show off D. carry on
  【解析】分析题意为“当今社会给年轻一代提供了更多的机会来展示他们的才能和技能。”由题意可知,空缺处应该是“炫耀;展示”之意,故答案为C。
  【精选试题】 名校模拟题及其答案
  1.(2008—2009学年度高二第一学期期末六校联考,英语,30)—How lovely these children are!
  —Yeah.They______ memories of my childhood.
  A. called out B. called for C. called up D. called on
  【解析】call out“出动, 向…叫喊”, call for “需要,要求”, call up“召集, 使想起, 提出, 打电话给”, call on“号召, 呼吁, 约请, 访问”。此句意思是“他们引起了我对童年的回忆。”因此选C。
  【答案】C
  2. (2008—2009学年度高二第一学期期末六校联考,英语,33)Many kids ________ the net bar, and _____had a bad effect on their studies.
  A. are addicted to; it B. get engaged in; which
  C. are related to; what D. are addicted to; which
  【解析】be addicted to 意思是“对…上瘾”,符合题意。And 是一个并列连词,后面应该是并列句,而不是从句,因此排除B和D。be related to“与…有关”,不符合题意,因此排除。
  【答案】A
  3.(山东省莒南一中2008—2009学年度高三第一学期学业水平阶段性测评,英语,21)
  After studying in a medical college for five years, Jane her job as a doctor
  in the countryside.
  A.set out B.took over C.took up D.set up
  【解析】set out“出发, 开始” take over“接收, 接管”take up“从事” set up“设立”根据题意,应选C。
  【答案】C
  4. (江苏省扬州中学2008-2009学年度高一第二学期3月月考,英语,34)Though we _________serious natural disasters, we are sure to overcome all difficulties.
  A. give away B. affect with C. suffer from D. deal with
  【解析】give away“分发, 放弃, 泄露”, affect“影响”及物动词, suffer from“遭受” ,deal with“处理”。从“ we are sure to overcome all difficulties.”这句话可以推断出前半句的意思应该是“尽管我们遭受着严重的自然灾害”,因此应选C。
  【答案】C
  5. (重庆市十二校2OO9年高三第一次质量调研抽测试卷,英语,32) The shop assistant was fired as she was _________ of cheating customers.
  A.accused B.charged C.blamed D.caught
  【解析】be accused of “被控告” accused与of 搭配,符合题意。 be charged with“被控告”charge 和with 搭配。 blame “责备”。
  【答案】A
  6.(河南省实验中学08-09学年下期高三第二次月考,24) Asked suddenly about the matter ,he couldn’t an answer at once.
  A. come up with B. look for C. put up with D. answer for
  【解析】come up with“得出答案” look for“寻找” put up with“提出” answer for“负责”根据题意,应该选A.
  【答案】A
  7.(吉林市普通中学2008—2009学年度高中毕业班下学期期中复习检测,英语,18)
  My daughter is not sure what to_______ at the university; she can’t make up her
  mind about her future.
  A. take up B. make up C. pick up D. build up
  【解析】句意:我的女儿在大学里不知道学什么,对自己的未来他心里还没有底。take up开始学;开始从事。make up组成,构成;编造;pick up拾起;学到;获得;build up逐步建立;增强。
  【答案】A
  8.(杭州二中2008学年高三年级第五次月考,英语,6)His colleagues ______ him though he himself didn’t think he had done anything special.
  A. thought highly of B. looked up to
  C. sing high praise of D. show great respect for
  【解析】think highly of 固定搭配,译为“对…评价高”符合题意。Show great respect 后应用介词to, C 说法错误,look up to 向上看,不合题意。
  【答案】A
  9.(大庆市高三年级第一次教学质量检测试题,英语。33)Hard work and lack of sleep have her beauty and youth in recent years.
  A. worn out B.tried out C made out D.sent out
  【解析】worn out耗尽,筋疲力尽; tried out试验, 考验, 提炼;make out书写, 填写, 拼凑, 进展, 说明, 设法应付, 理解, 辨认出; sent out发出。
  【答案】A
  10.(厦门市2009年高中毕业班质量检查,英语,23)It’s obvious that the Beijing Olympic Games a great seccess.
  A.kept B.showed C proved D.remained
  【解析】show sb sth 出示某物给某人看;keep保持;prove证明是;符合题意,remain仍然。
  【答案】C
  11. Before the war broke out, many people ______in safe places possessions they could not take with them.
  A. throw away B.put away C.gave away D.carried away
  【解析】 句意:战争爆发前,好多人把一些不能带走的东西存放在安全的地方。put away存储,存放;throw away扔掉;give away 泄露,赠送;carry away拿走。
  【答案】B
  12. The company is atarting a new advertising campaign to ______new custumers to its stores.
  A.join B. attract C.stick D.transfer
  【解析】 句意:为了把新的顾客吸引到店内,公司开始了一场新的广告战。Attract吸引;transfer 转让,转移。
  【答案】B
  13. Modern plastics can ______very high and very low temperatures.
  A. stand B.seeking C.finding D.looking for
  【解析】 句意:新型的塑料袋能够承受很高和很低的温度。stand承受,经受,经得起。hold支撑,carry 运载 support 支撑,养活。
  【答案】A
  14. It was already past midnight and only three young men ______in the house.
  A.left B.remained C. delayed D. deserted
  【解析】 句意:已过午夜,只有三个青年那字还在茶馆里。leave,离开,使保留;desert,抛弃,舍弃。A 项应用被动语态, C 和D不合句意。
  【答案】B
  15.In this seaside resort,you can __________all the comfort and convenience of modern tourism.(山东2007)
  A.enjoy
  B.apply
  C.receive
  D.achieve
  【答案】A。
  【解析】这几个动词均可以作及物动词,但是意思、含义不一样。enjoy表示“.享受…之乐,欣赏,喜爱”,apply表示“运用,应用,专心,致力”,receive表示“领受,接到,收到,得到(信、命令、请帖等)”,achieve表示“完成,做到;获得(胜利等);达到(目的),实现”。根据句意只能选A。句意:在这个海滨娱乐场,你可以享受所有现代旅游的舒适与便利。
  16.We ________the last bus and didn’t have any money for taxi,so we had to walk home.(全国2006 Ⅰ)
  A.reached
  B.lost
  C.missed
  D.caught
  【答案】C。
  【解析】reach意为“到,抵,到达(特定地点,目的地等)”,lose意为“丢失,丧失”,miss意为“没赶上(车子等)、错过”,catch意为“赶(得上)(火车等);追着,捕捉;逮着”根据句意只能选C。
  17(2007年福建卷,33)The news of the mayor’s comong to our school for a visit was ______on the radio yesterday.
  A. turned out B.found out C. given out D.carried out
  【答案】C
  【解析】 句意:新市长要求来我校参观的消息已于昨日通过广播公布了。A项意为“结果是,制造生产” B项意为“查清,弄明”C项是“分发,散发”D项为“履行,实施”
  18(2007年湖北卷,27)If we can ______our present difficulties, then everything should be all right.
  A. cone across B. get over C. come over D. get off
  【答案】B
  【解析】 句意: 如果我们能克服目前的困难,一切都会很顺利的。come across 偶遇;get over克服,越过;come over 过来,顺便来访;get off 下车,使动身。
  19 (2007山东) It’s the sort of work that__________a high level of concentration.
  A. calls for B. makes up
  C. lies in D. stands for
  【答案】A
  【解析】call for“要求”;make up“弥补,编造,组成”;lie in“在于”;stand for“代表”。句意是“正是这种工作要求精力高度集中。”故正确答案为选项A。
  20. (2007浙江)We firmly believe that war never settles anything. It only__________violence.
  A. runs into B.comes from
  C. leads to D. begins with
  【答案】C
  【解析】run into“撞上,陷入”;come from“来自于”;lead to“导致,引起”;begin with“以……开始”。句意是“我们坚信战争不会解决任何问题,它只会引起暴力。”故正确答案为C。
  21. The teacher has a peculiar way of ______her student’s nervousness when then speak English.
  A. breaking down B. going over C. taking off D. giving away
  【解析】A 句意:这位老师有一种疏导学生在说英语时产生的紧张情绪的独特方法。 Break down :to separate something such as an idea or statement into smaller parts in order to make it easier to understand or deal with .go over 复习; take off脱下,起飞;give away分发,赠给,泄露(秘密)。
  22. In the cross-lake swimming race, a boat will be ____in case of an emergency.
  A. standing by B. turning on C. getting on D. running on
  【解析】A 句意:有船只严阵以待,预防紧急情况。stand by 为不及物短语:to wait and be ready for action if needed 准备行动;待机;turn on 打开;get on进展;run down撞倒。根据句意,B 、C、D 三项均不符合。
  23. You _____only half the price ,how would the seller sell the jacket to you ?
  A. spent B. paid C. charged D. offered
  【解析】D句意:你仅出半价,店员怎么会把这件夹克卖给你呢?offer: to say that you will pay a particular amount of money to buy something 出价六万英镑买这所房子。 Charge(收费)不符合题意。抚讲价(offer)而后才能药费(spend)或支付(pay)帮A、B两项不合常理。
  24. He _____the problem _____in his mind for a whole week before he did anything about it.
  A. switched; on B. kicked; up C. turned; over D. took; on
  【解析】C句意:在采取措施之前,他在脑中将这个问题反复思考了一个星期。turn over :to think about carefully仔细考虑;switch on把开关打开;kick up引起;take on呈现、雇用、承担。
  25. At times the balance in nature is ______ , resulting in a number of possibly unforeseen effects.
  A. troubled B. confused C. disturbed D. puzzled
  【解析】C trouble主要指遇上难解决的问题而使人苦恼、忧虑;puzzled 指人是困惑的,因此将A、D两项排除;根据句意,自然的平衡本身并不是混乱的(confused),而不受到了人为的干扰(disturbed),才会导致不可预见的影响。因此选择C项。
  26. — So, how is your new roommate ?
  — She really ____. She always making loud noises at midnight and when I remind her , she always makes rude remarks.
  A. turns me over B. turns me down C. turns me off D. turns me out
  【解析】C turn sb.over :把……移交,把……交给;turn sb. down:拒绝;turnsb.off :使对(某人)感到厌烦、使不感兴趣;turn sb.out:驱逐,赶走。根据句意“她总是在午夜弄出很大的响声,我提醒她时,她还总是说些粗鲁的话”,由此可知她是使我烦透了,选择C项。
  27. People have planted a great many trees in order to ____wind and sand in the desert.
  A. hold down
  B. hold up C. hold back D. hold out
  【解析】C hold down压制,限制;hold up推迟,耽搁;hold back阻挡,抑制;hold out提供,提出。句意:人们种了大量的树,为了阴挡风和沙尘。由此可知答案为C项。
  28. — Would you like to go to Paris with us next year ?
  — I’d like to, but my mother ______ that I am too young.
  A. is against B. opposes C. objects D. explains
  【解析】C前三项意思相同,都可以表示“反对(做)、某事”:be against(doing)sth.:oppose(doing) sth.; object to(doing) sth.。但是objiet还可接宾语从句,这时它为及物动词,意思为“提出异议”。前一句邀请对方一起去Paris,答话人说他很愿意去,但是妈妈提出异议说他年龄太小。D项explain虽然也可执着that 从句,但是它的含义为“解释”不能明确地说明妈妈的态度是赞成还是反对。
  29. There’s no bear left and the pubs are shut so you’ll have to _______.
  A. go out B. go off C. go without D. go through
  【解析】C go out外出,熄灭;go off爆炸,中断;go through通过,完成,经历;go without忍受某事物的缺乏。句意:啤酒卖完了,酒吧也都关门了,所以你只好将就一下了。
  30. The film “World without thieves” ______ a great success and brought in a large profit to the cinema.
  A. appreciated B. enjoyed C. won D. seized
  【解析】B易误选C,win 指赢得了比赛、奖励、胜利等,不可以与a great success 连用。Enjoy享有,如:He enjoys a reputation for honesty. 本题中的enjoy a great success 意为 win large sales。句意:《天下无贼》一举成功,同时也给电影院带来了巨大的盈利。
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